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How To Choose The Best Amazon Aquarium Canister Filters? (2022)


Canister filters are one of the most popular filters for medium to large sized aquaria, and are suitable for both freshwater and marine aquaria.

External canister filters sit underneath the aquarium, they draw water from the aquarium by gravity feed and return it with a magnetic impellor driven pump. The body of the canister filter is simply an empty container that can be filled with the filter media of your choice, although most canisters now come complete with media. Many canisters, particularly modern types, have a series of baskets to hold the various filter media.

Filtration media can be tailored to the needs of the tank, but commonly canisters use a mix of biological and mechanical media and often all three types of filtration are combined. A canister may have, for example, a layer of biological filter media, a layer of carbon for chemical filtration, and a layer of sponge for mechanical filtration. Since canister force water to flow through the media without by-passing it, they provide very good contact between the water and the media, resulting in very efficient filtration.

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Best Fluval FX High Performance Canister External Aquarium Filter

Moves a lot of water; Rock-solid construction. – it’s an absolute tank ! very quiet considering how much water passes through it an hour . Very easy to maintain, trays pull out easy for cleaning and swapping media etc, draining is a breeze

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The Best Aquarium Quiet Flow Canister Filter 55-100 Gallons

Powerful filter – Very quiet. Suction power is still the same as day one, powerful. Very easy to clean. This gave back a lot of room in the aquarium compared to the back hanging filter. It dramatically reduced the maintenance required. And it is far quieter than my previous “whisper” product.
The quality of the product seems high and cleaned the canister once. Easy.

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Best Marine land Magniflow Canister Filter for Aquariums, Fast Maintenance

Great filtration choice – Amazing filter! Quiet. Powerful. Efficient. Pulled all the tannin’s out of 55 in a day! Easy to assemble. Easy to clean. Don’t forget to install the o ring in the under side of the black top.

Ideally, the water should flow through the filter media from coarsest (biological) to finest (mechanical). This way any solid particles will be trapped away from, and will not restrict, the biological filtration, and the filter will generally run longer between servicing. Usually water flows from the bottom to top of the canister, but a few have the opposite design. A canister can be set up purely for one type of filtration, eg completely filled with carbon, sponge, or biological media. If a canister is to be used primarily as a biological filter, it is still a good idea to include some mechanical filter media to prevent the biological media becoming clogged.

The cleaning and servicing of canister filters is a little more complicated than that of other filters, however it generally does not need to be done as often, and modern canisters make the process much easier than with older-style models. How often a canister filter needs to be cleaned will depend on how it is set up and the load on the tank. If chemical filter media are used, these will need to be replaced after 1 to 2 months in most cases, although some will last around 3 months. However, if these are not used, a canister may run many months without attention. The water turn-over provided by a canister will decrease as the mechanical filter media becomes clogged, when the flow is visibly reduced it is time to clean the canister. On average this should be done every 4 to 6 months, but may be longer or shorter depending on the media used and the load of fish waste. Canisters which use very fine filter media will remove solid wastes more efficiently, but will need to be cleaned more often than those using coarser filtration media. Where there is a greater load of fish on the tank, the filter will also need to be cleaned more often.

Modern canister offer many features that make cleaning easier. For example, a shut-off may be present which cuts off water flow from the hoses so that these can be removed from the filter body without spillage. (Leaving the hoses full of water while the filter body is cleaned also saves restarting the siphon action that is needed to fill the canister). Quick release clips and integrated O-ring make disassembly and re-assembly quick and easy.

All the seals on a canister should be regularly checked. A faulty seal can cause water to escape from the canister, and water can then siphon freely out of the tank. Putting a pin hole on both tubes just under the water level will prevent the water from draining beyond this point, and this is a sensible precaution to take.

Although the canister may only need to be serviced every few months, partial water changes should still be performed every 2 – 3 weeks.

Canisters offer the best flexibility in terms of tailoring the filtration to the needs of the tank, and, if set up correctly, can provide excellent biological filtration. In fact, in marine tanks they are generally the best filtration system. The only exception is in reef tanks where corals are primarily or exclusively kept. Where the fish load is low or nil, less biological filtration is needed and so a canister may not be needed. Some reef aquarium utilize natural organisms in the live rock and sand in addition to protein skimming and do away with “traditional” filtration. However, canisters are sometimes still used purely for mechanical and chemical filtration, or to provide a degree of biological filtration where a mix of fish and corals are kept.

The initial cost of canisters is relatively high when compared with internal or overflow filters, although new models are now cheaper than at any time in the past. Because of the expense, they are most popular on larger tanks and marine tanks, but they are suitable for medium sized tanks also.

Getting the most out of this filter system:

Choose a suitable model for the size of your tank and number of fish (Remember that good filtration requires turning your tank volume over two to three times an hour, more filtration may be needed if you have more or larger fish). Take into account the fact that water flow will reduce over time. Buying a canister with greater water-turnover or more media volume will mean it can run longer between services.

Choose media to suit the needs of your fish. For example, use more mechanical media where messy fish are kept, and more biological media for small fish and marine fish. Remember that chemical media is not essential – it will be beneficial if replaced regularly, but if left too long in the canister can leach toxins back into the tank.

Clean around the impeller every 2-3 months to ensure it runs smoothly, and replace the impellor if necessary.

Troubleshooting:

Problem: Filter does not run, IE. impellor is not turning

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Check power supply, make sure filter is plugged in and turned on at the power
2. Impellor may be jammed: gentle shaking will sometimes start the filter, but the impellor or impellor well may need to be cleaned.
3. Faulty/worn impellor or broken shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.
4. Burnt-out motor or broken wiring: these cannot be repaired, you will need to replace the filter.

Problem: Impellor turns but little or no water movement occurs

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Clogged filter media may be restricting water flow: rinse media in aquarium water, replace fine poly pad if needed
2. Restriction of water intake or hoses: clean any debris from the intake, flush out hoses or clean with a flexible brush
3. Air blocks in canister: tip canister on its side or rock side-to-side to dislodge air blockages
4. Faulty/worn impellor: Check the impellor, ensure the fan is fixed to the impellor (some spin and click, but should only have about a quarter turn free play), replace impellor if needed.

Problem: Filter produces excessive noise

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Clogged filter media or intake causing flow restriction and back pressure: clean media in aquarium water, replace fine poly pad if needed, remove debris that is clogging intake.
2. Faulty/worn impellor or shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.
3. Air blocks in canister: tip canister on its side or rock side-to-side to dislodge air blockages

Problem: Filter is running properly, but the aquarium does not stay clean

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Old or clogged media: Rinse the media in water from the aquarium, replace fine poly pad or other mechanical media as needed.
2. Brand new media not seeded with bacteria, media cleaned of good bacteria: When the filter is brand new, good bacteria will not be present and the filter will not work as well. Good bacteria help to break down wastes and to trap fine particles. If you clean the media with chlorinated tap water or detergents, or if the media is allowed to dry out, or is deprived of oxygen this will kill off the good bacteria and lead to decreased filter performance. You can add cultures of good bacteria to help these establish (or re-establish) in the filter.
3. Not enough filtration for tank load. If the filter is not an appropriate model for the tank size, or if the tank is overcrowded or stocked with very messy species, or if the tank is overfed, the filtration may not be adequate, even if the filter is running properly. Increase frequency of maintenance, reduce the load on the tank, or upgrade filtration.

Problem: Water leaks from hoses, taps, or canister head

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Loose connections: check that taps and fitting are all properly connected, taps are screwed or clipped in properly, and are not cross-threaded. Make sure head is seated properly on the canister body.
2. Worn or improperly sealed O-rings: check condition of o-rings, lubricate or replace if worn
3. Cracked canister body or connections: Replace the damaged components. Many of you will be aware that we recommend a large number of Via Aqua canisters as these offer a great design, great performance and reliability for a very good price.

5 of the World’s Most Dangerous Lizards and Turtles


Gila monster

One of two types of North American venomous reptiles in the sort heloderma of the family helodermatidae. He gila beast (h. Suspectum) was named for the gila river bowl and happens in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Easily recognized by their dark bodies set apart with emotional examples of pink, orange, or yellow,

Venom:
The gila beast is one of just a small bunch of venomous reptiles on the planet. Others incorporate the comparable looking Mexican beaded reptiles, as well as iguanas and screen reptiles.
Behavior:
Gilas are torpid animals that feed essentially on eggs assaulted from homes and infant well evolved creatures.

Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum ):

Heloderma horridum is found all through focal and western Mexico from scope 25, toward the south to northern central America. The beaded lizard or (heloderma horridum) and gila monster (h-suspectum) are large in size, highly venomous, anguimorph lizards are threatened by human persecution, habitat loss and degradation, and climate change.

Habitat:
Heloderma horridum is found in semi-arid rocky regions. Areas are sparsely vegetated canyon bottoms, open forest, and washes. These type of lizards are often found on rock ledges.

The Iguanas (subfamily Iguana):

The name iguana typically alludes just to the individuals from the subfamily iguana. The most popular species is the normal or green iguana (iguana), which comes from Mexico toward the south to Brazil. Iguanas give values to the environment and for people.

Environmentally, they are vital to well established pecking orders, consuming a great extent of plant matter and being eaten by different hunters.

Size:

This species arrive at a most extreme length of more than 2 meters or (6.6 feet) and 6 kg or (13.2 pounds).

Check out this Cool Reptile Skull Hideout

Tree crocodile, or Crocodile monitor:

Physical description:
The crocodile screen is a huge arboreal reptile local to New Guinea., arboreal (or tree-staying) reptiles from Southeast Asia. Screen reptiles are the main reptiles other than snakes to have forked tongues. This permits them to utilize their feeling of smell and taste to see what’s happening around them.

Size:
They can weigh up to 44 pounds (20 kilograms) and reach over 8 feet in total length (2.4 meters),

Habitat:
Saltwater crocodiles often hide among vegetation or warm themselves by basking in the sun at the water’s edge.

Aquarium Alligator Bubbler

Common, or Malayan, water monitor:

This large lizard is commonly seen on many of our shores, including our offshore islands.. Large lizards with black temporal band edged with yellow that extends back from each eye, the neck is very long with an elongated snout.

What does it eat:
According to baker, it eats small animals and fishes and also scavenges on dead animals. They likewise eat flesh and carcasses of people, which they have been known to unearth and eat.

Habitat:
Semi-amphibian and has a wide scope of living spaces, waterway banks and marshes. These reptiles don’t astonish their prey; they effectively seek after their prey by swimming, climbing, or pursuing them.

How To Choose The Best Amazon Aquarium Air Driven Filters?


 

There are three main types of air driven filter available: A corner box cartridge and a sponge type. Undergravel filters are also sometimes run with an Aquarium air pump.

Good quality really powerful pump for the price:

This is a good pump that you can plug multiple air stones into and still get great air flow from each stone. Helps supply your pond or tank with lots of oxygen for your fish.


How To Choose The Best Amazon Aquarium Air Driven Filters?

 

 


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Premium Materials & Great Heat Control:

This pump dissipates heat more effectively with aluminum-alloy heat-radiating plates, and delivers excellent, long-lasting performance with a high-quality aluminum manifold and 100% copper outlet nozzle.

Best hygger Aquarium Double Sponge Filter

 

 


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Maximum Air Pressure and Air Volume:

powerful 102W electromagnetic motor produces exceptional air pressure (over 0.035 MPa) and sends a huge volume of air to the 12 adjustable valve outlets (compatible with 1/4″ air lines)

VIVOSUN 1750 GPH 102W 12x Outlet Air Pump

✓: Professional air pump for aquariums and hydroponic systems.

✓: Made by integral molding thickened aluminum alloy for maximum heat control.

✓: An adjustable distributor allows for separate control of air stones.


Best hygger Aquarium Double Sponge Filter

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Best hygger Aquarium Double Sponge Filter:

Very Clever Sponge Filter – Hygger makes excellent aquarium products but this filter is especially clever. What makes this so different is incorporation of compartments for ceramic bio material which is provided though one can choose any bio ceramics. Increases biological filtration in a way no other sponge filter can do. Note that the two extra sponges are packed in the bio compartments.

 

 


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Corner box filters & cartridge filters

The corner box is probably one of the oldest filtration methods. Filter wool and (commonly) carbon are placed in the filter and replaced regularly. The filter wool provides mechanical filtration, while the carbon removes a range of dissolved impurities.

Air driven cartridge filters usually use a replaceable cartridge containing filter matting for mechanical filtration plus carbon and/or zeolite to remove dissolved impurities.

Since the wool and carbon or filter cartridge must be replaced regularly, very little biological filtration is provided by either of these systems. Also, since they use an air pump to produce water flow they do not have a very large water turnover. On going costs for these systems can also be quite high. Filter wool and carbon can be purchased in bulk, reducing their cost somewhat, but must still be replaced every week to fortnight. Cartridges can be cleaned a few times before being replaced, but are often relatively expensive when compared with the replacement media for internal or overflow power filters.


Getting the most out of this filter system:

Replace wool and carbon (if used) regularly. Wool should be removed as soon as it becomes clogged with waste products, or at least fortnightly. Carbon will generally lose its effectiveness after 2-3 weeks. Service your air pump and replace diaphragms and air valves as necessary.

Sponge filters:

These filters use an air pump to pull water through a sponge filter. The sponge acts as a mechanical filter and will also support some nitrifying bacteria. The sponge filter can be cleaned and re-used many times, and, if care is taken, it will retain most of its biological filtration ability. Eventually, when the sponge begins to collapse, the whole filter will need to be replaced.

The drawback of air-driven sponge filters is, again, the lack of water flow through the sponge, which limits their efficiency. These filters are predominantly used in tanks for raising fry. These aquariums are usually small anyway, and strong currents are not desirable for fry, which may be at risk of being sucked into the inlet of stronger filters.

Getting the most out of this filter system:

Rinse the sponge gently in water from the aquarium to clean it of organic matter (this will minimize loss of nitrifying bacteria). When replacing the filter, ideally run the new filter while the old one is still operating. This will give the new sponge time to build up nitrifying bacteria. Service your air pump and replace diaphragms and air valves as necessary.








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Servicing your air pump

Air pumps do not need cleaning or lubrication, but eventually the diaphragm inside will stretch or split and will need to be replaced. To check the diaphragm, turn off and unplug the pump, then remove the base (usually held in place by four or five screws. Inside the pump will be the diaphragm and armature as illustrated above, plus the motor coil. In twin outlet pumps there will be two diaphragms, and (usually) two arms, although some run two diaphragms from a single modified assembly. The diaphragm sits over a cylindrical chamber (the air chamber) which leads to the air outlet. You can usually examine the diaphragm without removing it from the air chamber. If the diaphragm needs to be replaced, it is usually easiest to do so by taking out the air chamber, diaphragm and air chamber as a unit. A screw on the side of the pump may be holding the air chamber in place, in other models it simply slides in. Undo the screw if needed and then gently manoeuver the air chamber, armature and diaphragm out of the pump. The diaphragm can then be removed from the air chamber. In most pumps the diaphragm can be unscrewed from the armature. In others it is attached and the whole armature must be replaced. Once a new diaphragm has been fitted to the armature, fit the diaphragm snugly over the air chamber and replace the whole assembly.

Inside the air chamber are flapper valves which will also eventually wear out, although they do last longer than the diaphragms. The flapper valves can be replaced while the air chamber is out for replacement of the diaphragm. To replace the flapper valves, use tweezers to remove the rubber lugs which hold them in place, drop in the new flapper, and replace the rubber lugs.

Trouble shooting

Problem: Air pump is not running, there is no noise or vibration from the pump
Possible causes & remedies:
1. Check power supply, make sure air pump is plugged in and turned on at the power
2. Burnt-out motor or broken wiring: these cannot be repaired, you will need to replace the air pump.


Problem: Air pump is excessively noisy
Possible causes & remedies:
1. Worn or split diaphragm, bent or loose swing arm: check the diaphragm and replace if it has been stretched, has split, or is stiff. Check arm is firmly in position and straighten if needed.
2. Vibration of air pump against solid object: make sure that the air pump body is not in contact with the stand, cabinet or any other object.
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Problem: Air pump runs, but little or no air is produced
Possible causes & remedies:
1. Clogged air stone may be restricting airflow: for sandstone air stones, rinse in hot water or replace with a new air stone. For synthetic diffusers and bubble walls, poke new holes with a sharp pin.
2. Kinks or other restrictions in airline: check that airline is not kinked or restricted or of excessive length. Make sure taps or g-clamps are not turned right off
3. Air leak in airline or fittings: Check that air is not escaping from loose or broken connectors or taps.
4. Worn or split diaphragm or flapper valves: check the diaphragm and replace if it has been stretched, has split, or is stiff. Replace flapper valves if they are split or stiff.
5. Air pump not powerful enough: to run a very long air stone/bubble wall, or to run an air stone in a very deep tank, a powerful air pump is needed. A stronger air pump may also be needed if the airline connecting it is very long.

Problem: Water inside air pump
Possible causes & remedies:
1. Water has siphoned into the pump: disconnect power immediately! Disassemble pump and allow to dry completely before reassembling and checking to see if it still works. If it does not, it will need to be replaced.

7+ Pink Fish Tank Ideas For Cute Kawaii Aesthetic Aquarium!


Check out this Glowing Effect Artificial Coral Plant Ornaments

Designing a pink fish tank that looks cute can be a bit of a challenge, but with some creative thinking and a little bit of know-how, you can make your Aquarium tank look super kawaii.

One way to do this is to use different types of colorful plants and decor to create an interesting-looking environment for your pink fish. Additionally, using the right type of LED lighting can also help to create a more pleasing environment for your fish. In this blog, I am going to give you more ideas on how to achieve this beautiful aesthetic.

Designing pink aesthetic fish tanks can be fun and educational. This style is definitely not only for kids but for everyone who enjoys Colorful Tanks and Cool Stuff

By following these simple tips, you can create the perfect fish tank for your home!

Start with a basic design.

If you’re thinking about setting up your own fish tank, it’s important to do some research. There are a lot of different types and sizes of tanks available, so it can be hard to decide what’s the best option for you. One thing to keep in mind is that the size of your tank will depend on the number and type of fish you want to keep. It is best to start with something simple that you can later expand on.

Most of the time you cannot find a pink fish tank (unless you go with a tiny marina), but you can choose a simple glass or acrylic tank and then decorate it with a pretty pink stand or other pink accessories. Make sure the overall size and design of your pink aquarium match the overall style of your home/room.

If you are installing a tiny cute aesthetic fish tank in your bedroom, try a fishbowl,Like this one or with a smart simple design Aquarium freshwater or saltwater. Go with a small turtle/ one or two pretty fish.

Get a secondary color for the fish tank theme.

Sometimes you just cannot get everything in pink, so it will be helpful and practical to set a secondary color for your aesthetic fish tank design.

White, blue, purple, pastel and neon colors look great with a pink color scheme for your fish tank if you love the colorful aesthetic. You can add the colors through cool LED lighting or ornaments.

Set a theme for the pink aquarium aesthetic.

Setting up a fish tank design theme can be a fun and easy way to organize and customize your aquarium. There are many different themes to choose from, so it’s important to find one that is compatible with your personal style and interests. Check this Idea for a theme

Normal popular themes include tropical fish, marine life, and freshwater fish. However, the themes for a cute pink fish tank can be mermaid, princess,

Once you’ve selected a theme, you’ll need to decide on the layout of your tank. There are many different styles available, so it’s important to find one that will fit your personal preferences. Finally, you’ll need to choose the types of fish that will live in your tank. Aquarium typically stocked with various types of fish, so it’s important to select ones that match your chosen theme.

Get some pink fish.

Because of their size, color, and personality, Jack Dempsey’s are among the most sought-after pink freshwater fish for the tank. Its oval-shaped fish has large dorsal and anal fins, as well as a rounded tail. Their base color ranges from a dusky, rosy pink to a dark, almost black.

Other than Jack Dempsey’s, you can find many other pink fishes such as Lake Malawi Firefish Peacock Cichlid, BABY Lake Malawi Strawberry Peacock, Lake Malawi Red Peacock Cichlid, Pink Kissing Fish, Pink Convict Cichlid, Moonrise Very-Pink GloFish Tetra, Rare Pink Jack Dempsey Cichlid, Rare Strawberry Tiger Barb, Rare Albino Veiltail Oscar, Galactic Very-Purple GloFish Rainbow Shark, etc. They are in different shades of pink, such as hot pink, purple-pink, pastel pink, etc.

Think about your fish’s needs. Some fish need lots of space hence a large tank, while others prefer smaller tanks. Consider how many fish you want to keep and what their sizes will be before starting to design your tank.

Use pink plants and algae to add interest to your tank.

One of the most important aspects of keeping a healthy aquarium is ensuring that the fish have enough food and oxygen. One way to do this is to add algae and plants to the tank as a food source for the fish. However, it is important to choose the right pink plant for your fish tank, as some types can be harmful to them. You can also consider pink rotala, coral, and reef.

Lay pink gravel, rocks, pebbles or sand for your aesthetic fish tank.

When choosing gravel, sand, and rocks for a fish tank, it is important to consider the type of fish that will be living there. For example, gravel is best for fish that like to dig and bury their heads in the substrate. On the other hand, sand is best for fish that like to swim around and explore. Rocks can be used in any tank, but are especially good for tanks with high water levels or those with a lot of currents.

Add cute pink decor & ornaments.

When it comes to choosing the right decorations and ornaments for your fish tank, there are a few things to keep in mind. First, make sure that the ornaments you choose are compatible with the fish you plan to keep them with. Second, think about what kind of environment your fish tank will be used in. For example, some ornaments look best in natural settings while others might look better in a futuristic setting. And finally, consider how much space you have available for your fish tank and what type of fish you want to keep it with. Popular decorations you can get in shades of pink colors include castles and neon fake jellyfish.

Reverse Osmosis Unit


If you are planning on venturing into the world of saltwater aquariums then you will quickly learn about the necessity of a reverse osmosis unit. Reverse osmosis is essentially a filtration process that removes large molecules from everyday tap water, such as minerals and other impurities leaving you with a pure form of water suitable for your saltwater aquarium (not for drinking!).

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Best GPD Grade Commercial Tankless Reverse Osmosis RO Water Filter System

Great system. Very fast even without a reservoir. – Great product. Super easy to install. The new system works very well. The pump was a convincing feature as it maintains a steady water flow compensating for uneven water line pressure. The RO system is used for drinking water as well as the ice maker in our refrigerator (ICEKkit). Product support is very good (responsive)

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Best Under sink Reverse Osmosis Water Filter System

Easy install, Great water. – Followed the start up procedure and actually didn’t see much black carbon during the flush despite what the videos say. Perhaps they’ve upgraded the filter. Ran the tank out twice as per instructions and let it fill a final time. water pressure once the tank is full is great. You can fill a large pot in just a minute or two. We decided on the permeate pump option (black cylinder front left) to reduce waste water.

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Best Portable Countertop Reverse Osmosis Water Filter System

Worth every penny and more – This countertop RO system is perfect for apartments or situations where you can’t install a RO that has a holding tank. For those who want to understand where the waste water comes out, it flows out of a special outlet that is part of the adapter that replaces your faucets aerator. There is a lot of waste water (“brine”). The systems are designed generally to give you one part clean/filtered water to two or three parts waste water. It’s just how they work. Collect the brine water in some gallon jugs and use it on your plants or something if it bothers you to waste so much water. The RO can only filter as fast as the water pressure will allow

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Best 5-Stage Reverse Osmosis and De ionization RO/DI | Aquarium Reef Water Filter System

Good quality filter – The product arrived quickly and was packaged well. The company sent emails to confirm my request for a shut off and flushing valve. It came with almost everything needed to install it. The system came assembled

You may choose to utilize your reverse osmosis unit entirely for the production of the water for your saltwater aquarium. You may however be using a fresh source of saltwater however a reverse osmosis unit will still be necessary for those weekly top-ups caused by evaporation. For the purpose of a water change your treated water can be mixed with a suitable salt mix, I have had good results with red sea coral pro however there are many options out there.

Dont skimp on a reverse osmosis unit and make sure you get at least a 4 stage filtration unit. Anything less may jeopardize the quality of the saltwater aquarium and you may encounter increased algae buildup and possible red algae. Trust me your saltwater aquarium and livestock will benefit from good quality water. The prices of reverse osmosis units increase with increased stages of filtration and higher output rates. Installation is as simple as placing near a water source and attaching via various tap connectors, much like washing machines, etc.

Saltwater Aquarium Sand


Saltwater Aquarium Sand?

Saltwater Aquarium sand is not just any old sand; it generally comprises what is commonly known as live sand. Live sand is a substrate that has been sourced from a coral reef, or alternatively, it is cultured from non-living coral sand. The term live refers to the micro and macro-organisms that are naturally present within the substrate. Live sand provides your underwater ecosystem with beneficial bacteria aiding in water purification and general stability. The microorganisms within your aquarium sand will assist in consuming organic waste within the substrate layer in addition to providing a natural source of food for many of the inhabitants

Regular types of sand such as beach or builders sand must be avoided at all costs. Not are many of them unsightly in an aquarium, they commonly contain silicates which will almost guarantee algae problems in your aquarium that you will find impossible to rectify. Saltwater aquarium sand must consist of live sand or aragonite material.

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Natures Best Bio Active Live Aragonite Aquarium Sand

Both attractive and practical. – Really adds realism to your aquarium decoration. Getting the required Nitrogen cycle bacteria with the sand is a step ahead in saltwater aquarium basics.

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Best Carib Sea ACS00940 Ocean Direct Natural Live Sand for Aquarium, 40-Pound

Doesn’t blow around on the bottom. – Overall a good buy, much better than store prices. The sand is nice quality and there were even little complete shells in it that look good. Good quality product, doesn’t blow around on the bottom. Looks great

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Best Caribsea Super Naturals Aquarium Sand

Beautiful sand – Looks fantastic. In the bag it looks sort of beige, but once rinsed and in the tank with the light on, it’s a bright white. It’s got a nice texture and was super easy to rinse. Helps if you rinse about 5 pounds at a time. Only took 15-20m to do 25 pounds of it. So much easier than pool filter sand.

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Best Coarse Aragonite 10lb Sand for Reef, Saltwater and Marine Aquariums

Beautiful sand that helps the reefs! – Perfect size, very clean, just as nice as the Fiji and ethically sourced to help support coral reefs, am very happy with this purchase!

Where to Buy Live Sand?

It is recommended that saltwater aquarium sand be purchased from reputable dealers specializing in reef aquariums. You should source live sand from suppliers who obtain it directly from the ocean or specialize in cultured live sand.

It is not possible to visually identify live sand therefore buying from a reputable dealer will ensure you are buying a quality product. If you are having your live sand shipped, ensure that the transit time is minimal as die-off can occur. The quicker you can get it, the better and more effective it will be during the cycling process of your tank

How Much Sand Should I Use?

It is important to regulate how much live sand is being used as too much will increase the biological load of the tank, therefore, putting higher strain on your filtration equipment. If filtration equipment is not filtering water at the correct levels the saltwater aquarium ecosystem will be under threat and algae growth will occur.

As a general rule of thumb, enough saltwater aquarium sand should be added to the tank to provide a 1-3/4 to 2 to the 2-inch substrate layer. For a more accurate measurement, you should be using approximately 1.45 pounds of saltwater aquarium sand per gallon. Therefore for a 55-gallon tank, you will require 80 pounds of substrate.

How to Add Saltwater Aquarium Sand?

Essentially when it comes to adding your aquarium there are three different setup options available. When setting up your aquarium you can choose to have 100% live sand, however, this can be very costly. Sometimes this can be detrimental due to the large biological load added to the tank at once and can strain your filtration equipment

Alternatively a combination of live sand can be mixed with another suitable substrate. Mixing the two will allow the conversion of the non-living part into live sand as the bacteria and micro organisms multiply and colonize through the entire mix. This is much more cost effective and will only require a slight increase in cycling time. Aragonite is a common type of substrate used to mix with live sand and is much cheaper at approximately $1 per pound.

If you are on a tight budget, the final option is to use 100% non-live sand. Non-live substrate will convert to live sand overtime with the increase of bacteria and micro organisms in the tank naturally, alternatively there are additives to speed up the process. Generally however this method will increase your overall cycling time greatly. This is not recommended if you are impatient!

When adding the saltwater aquarium sand it should be done at a slow pace as to avoid disturbance to the water and clouding. Do not pour the substrate directly over any live rock as this will suffocate them causing oxygen depletion and possible death.

Maintenance of Saltwater Aquarium Sand

Your substrate layer will also require cleaning as part of your ongoing saltwater aquarium maintenance. Essentially regular siphoning of the saltwater aquarium sand may be required to remove any excess waste or uneaten food matter. However, the secret to this task is the addition of janitors or cleaners to your tank

Your aquarium should incorporate inhabitants that will stir or turn over the live sand. This will ensure excess food matter and waste is filtered and keeps the saltwater aquarium sand in a continual cleaning cycle. There are a variety of crustaceans, fish, and invertebrates from hermit crabs to starfish that will not only turn over the substrate but also recycle waste matter and excess food, making your job easier. Just like adding any inhabitant to your tank, it is important to do your research and ensure that they are compatible with your existing creatures.

Algae Issues: Should You Kill Algae In A Saltwater Aquarium Or Reduce It Slowly With These Algae Reducing Tips?


This is a photo of my saltwater aquarium about 8 weeks after setup. As you can see I was experiencing significant algae growth, especially on the substrate. I searched all over the internet and spoke to my local fish store and narrowed this type of brown algae growth down to a few factors. The main factor is light, I was told that the 6 fluorescent tubes in the red sea max 250 hoods need replacing every 6-12 months. As they deteriorate they enter a spectrum that is outside the optimal levels, therefore causing algae growth. My saltwater aquarium is also situated near the front door of my house which has windows on either side, outside light also is in a spectrum that causes algae. I overcame this by temporarily blocking the windows with black plastic until blackout blinds were organized.

Changing light conditions helped considerably however algae growth still seemed abnormal. Lets be clear, algae growth is normal and there cant be a successful saltwater aquarium ecosystem without algae growth. The next thing to look at was my flow, its amazing how changing the direction of the power heads can create different flow coverage. I also added a vortex power head to the side of the saltwater aquarium to provide additional flow.

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Best Flipper Algae Scraper For Glass Aquariums

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Best Algae Scraper Scrubber Pad Sponge For Saltwater

It gets the work done – The stick is very sturdy. it gets the work done without wetting your hands especially the algae use the most the sponge is kinda thin but the material of the stick is not flimsy. hope they will make another part for heavy-duty algae removal. All the parts are useful in aquariums.

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Best Algae Control 16-Ounce Bottle For Aquarium

Excellent performance – This algae fix medicine which works so good. This is a very good product from API. It quickly solved your Algae problem & had no effect on the fish

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Best UV Timer Algae Remover Clean Light For Fish Tank

Inexpensive solution to micro algae in pond – Got this to clear micro algae in an 800gal pond in full sun. It’s working great! Placed this in the catchment basin of the shower filter as the water leaves the shower. it’s managing to kill off the algae. Very pleased, and highly recommend!

Finally, I decided that I would begin using fresh saltwater from my LFS instead of mixing saltwater. A month later I noticed a significant reduction in the pesky brown algae. I have used primarily fresh saltwater ever since, I still top up with fresh RO water. I conduct simple 10% changes every 10 days. I find this much easier and by doing so my levels are relatively stable most of the time and I require few if any additives.

This last photo is a shot probably about 3 months later showing the significant change in clarity and reduction in algae. As you can see the water appears clearer and the intensity of the lighting is much stronger. It took the fish and corals a day or so to adjust to the new lighting however no casualties. As you can see it took a while for my anemones to get comfortable however they stay put after this.

Should You Kill Algae In A Saltwater Aquarium Or Reduce It Slowly With These Algae Reducing Tips?

Algae is one of the most common problems that owners of saltwater tanks have to deal with. It is also the most frustrating because nothing can take away from the beauty of your tank tank faster then saltwater aquarium algae can.

What Causes Saltwater Aquarium Algae To Grow?

Algae can be traced back to one main component and that is excess nutrients in the aquarium water. Without these nutrients algae would have nothing to feed its growth. These nutrients are nitrates and phosphates, they are added to the tank from fish waste and uneaten fish food.

How to Kill Algae In a Saltwater Aquarium?

First, you must understand that algae are growing in your saltwater tanks for a reason and it is keeping your dissolved nutrients at safe levels. Killing it would cause your nitrate levels to spike and cause possible harm to your fish so killing it off quickly is not in your best interest. instead, you need to take a series of steps to choke of its food supply and slowly starve it out.

Tips For Reducing Saltwater Aquarium Algae

  • Evaluate your stocking levels and make sure your system is not overstocked, if it is remove fish until adequate stocking levels are reached
  • Do not overfeed your fish and only feed as much as they can eat in a minute. Be sure to shut all pumps off when you need to make sure the fish can get all of the food.
  • Make sure you have adequate-sized filters and protein skimmers and maintain them properly. Cleaning your filters every two weeks is a good practice but you may need to do it more or less frequent depending on your tank and the fish you have
  • Try and use purified reverse osmosis or de ionized water instead of tap water for making synthetic seawater because most tap water has high nitrate and phosphate levels

4 Recommendations For Saltwater Aquarium Lighting 2022: How To Remove Algae


Are you sick of algae in your aquarium? Your saltwater aquarium lighting may be your problem

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Best Marine LED Aquarium Light Adjustable Color Spectrum and Flow Mode

You won’t be disappointed – The remote control can also be used to override separate color intensities by single percentage increments, There are four settings at the bottom of the remote for dynamic effects, namely . partial cloud cover, partial sunlight, moonlight and thunderstorm. The unit has two pre-programmed timers for light duration and the ability to create two more programs of your own design.

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Best WILLS Dimmable Full Spectrum Planted Aquarium Led Lights

Powerful Light – These are powerful entry level lights. Absolutely no bells and whistles. Can’t individually run whites and blues with a timer like the via spectra. Need to mount them a minimum 14 off the water to have the spectrum mix enough to get good coverage. Watch the BRS black box light showdown before buying to help make your decision.

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Best RGB Color Changing Remote Control Underwater Submersible LED Lights Strip

It’s great that you can dim the light during the night … – They are great light tube. The plug and receiver have a bit of a cheap feel to it but it seems fine. It’s basically an LED strip inside a glass tube capped off with rubber. It’s design is very similar to a submersible heater. The instructions are pretty easy and submersible part of the power cord is pretty lengthy. The lights themselves are bright and has nice colors.

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Best Submersible LED Aquarium Crystal Glass LED Lights Bar

Works great! Well made – Excellent piece of equipment. This Light has many different colors and easily done what was intended to do. This light works perfectly, and is a fantastic addition to any tank, the light colours all look fantastic and depending on the colours of your fish some even glow!

Algae is inevitable in any saltwater aquarium and will always be present as part of the natural ecosystem, however, there are steps you can take as part of your ongoing saltwater aquarium maintenance schedule to decrease the rate and density of growth. There are several types of algae however the most common found in a saltwater aquarium is brown algae otherwise known as golden diatom algae.

When I first started my saltwater aquarium I had a regular build-up of brown algae, which was unsightly and annoying. I tried many different things to reduce the rate of algae growth and today I am proud to say I have very little algae growth between my regular cleans. There are many other aspects of your aquarium that may be causing the algae such as water quality, overfeeding, etc however many people do not realize that their saltwater aquarium lighting could be the culprit.

The duration, strength, and quality of your saltwater aquarium lighting play a huge part in not only the health of your livestock but also the number of algae that is produced. Saltwater aquarium lighting is designed to provide the correct spectrum of light for optimum growth of livestock whilst minimizing the growth of unsightly algae. There are several factors relating to your saltwater aquarium lighting that may be contributing to an increased level of algae growth, these include:

Old tubes

Ideally, you should replace your saltwater aquarium lighting tubes every 6-12 months. This can be an expensive exercise however the level of light given diminishes rather quickly. As the lighting tubes age, they begin to produce a quality of light outside the ideal spectrum which fuels algae growth. There are many LED options on the market today that can overcome this problem

Too much natural light

If your aquarium is situated in a location that receives too much natural light, this may also be a problem. Natural sunlight sits within the red spectrum and differs greatly from artificial saltwater aquarium lighting. if your aquarium receives too much natural light then this may be resulting in abnormal levels of algae. It is highly important that you factor this in when choosing the location for your saltwater aquarium as moving a full tank is almost impossible.

I placed mine in the entrance of my home and my front door has long windows on either side so I temporarily placed black plastic against them to see if there was a difference in algae growth, which there was so I purchased some nice block out blinds. They look great on the windows and protect my prized possession.

Correct strength and mix of tubes

There are several types of lighting tubes available that provide light within different spectrum’s and they are usually mixed to provide the optimum level of lighting and the look you are after. It will change depending on your aquarium, livestock, and personal preference. It is best to consult your local fish store expert to assist or see the manual of your aquarium.

I personally have a red sea max 250 saltwater aquarium which has 6 T5 fluorescent tubes. I have found a good mix using 4 ATI Blue Plus in combination with 2 Actinic White. I find this gives me the blue tones that I prefer whilst still keeping my corals happy. Remember if you are changing your saltwater aquarium lighting configuration, it may upset your livestock for a short time.

Duration of saltwater aquarium lighting

Your saltwater aquarium does not need any more than around 10 hours of artificial light per day to keep your livestock healthy. If you are experiencing increased levels of algae growth try adjusting the timer of your saltwater aquarium lighting down an hour or two. It might not seem like long however it can make a difference.

I hope you can learn from my experiences with saltwater aquarium lighting that reminds me I need to replace my tubes!

How To Choose The Best Amazon Aquarium Air Driven Filters?


There are three main types of air driven filter available, corner box cartridge and sponge types. 

Under gravel filters are also sometimes run with an air pump. As well as the filter itself, you need an air pump.

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Best Commercial Air Pumps for Aquarium

Good quality really powerful pump for the price – This is a good pump that you can plug multiple air stones into and still get great air flow from each stone. Helps supply your pond or tank with lots of oxygen for your fish. Runs a little warm, come on though….you should expect that to a degree. Quiet as a mouse. Good quality very satisfied with the quality price ratio.

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Best Aqueon Replacement Filter Cartridge

All in one cleaning system – They are simple to change and all the fish tank yuck is in one place and easy to throw away .These filters came as advertised and fit Aqueon 20 and 30 filters fine .the order was delivered on time and in good condition

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Best Aqueon QuietFlow LED PRO Aquarium Power Filter 50

Excellent filter – love the sound of running water and this filter just sounds soothing. You can hear it from upstairs but it is not disturbing at all. It is a gentle hum. Keeps the goldfish tank nice and clean as long as you do your

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Best hygger Aquarium Double Sponge Filter

Very Clever Sponge Filter – Hygger makes excellent aquarium products but this filter is especially clever. What makes this so different is incorporation of compartments for ceramic bio material which is provided, though one can choose any bio ceramics. Increases biological filtration in a way no other sponge filter can do. Note that the two extra sponges are packed in the bio compartments.

Corner box filters & cartridge filters

The corner box is probably one of the oldest filtration methods. Filter wool and (commonly) carbon are placed in the filter and replaced regularly. The filter wool provides mechanical filtration, while the carbon removes a range of dissolved impurities.

Air driven cartridge filters usually use a replaceable cartridge containing filter matting for mechanical filtration plus carbon and/or zeolite to remove dissolved impurities.

Since the wool and carbon or filter cartridge must be replaced regularly, very little biological filtration is provided by either of these systems. Also, since they use an air pump to produce water flow they do not have a very large water turnover. On going costs for these systems can also be quite high. Filter wool and carbon can be purchased in bulk, reducing their cost somewhat, but must still be replaced every week to fortnight. Cartridges can be cleaned a few times before being replaced, but are often relatively expensive when compared with the replacement media for internal or overflow power filters.

Getting the most out of this filter system:

Replace wool and carbon (if used) regularly. Wool should be removed as soon as it becomes clogged with waste products, or at least fortnightly. Carbon will generally lose its effectiveness after 2-3 weeks. Service your air pump and replace diaphragms and air valves as necessary.

Sponge filters

These filters use an air pump to pull water through a sponge filter. The sponge acts as a mechanical filter and will also support some nitrifying bacteria. The sponge filter can be cleaned and re-used many times, and, if care is taken, it will retain most of its biological filtration ability. Eventually, when the sponge begins to collapse, the whole filter will need to be replaced.

The drawback of air-driven sponge filters is, again, the lack of water flow through the sponge, which limits their efficiency. These filters are predominantly used in tanks for raising fry. These aquaria are usually small anyway, and strong currents are not desirable for fry, which may be at risk of being sucked into the inlet of stronger filters.

Getting the most out of this filter system:

Rinse the sponge gently in water from the aquarium to clean it of organic matter (this will minimise loss of nitrifying bacteria). When replacing the filter, ideally run the new filter while the old one is still operating. This will give the new sponge time to build up nitrifying bacteria. Service your air pump and replace diaphragms and air valves as necessary.

About air pumps

Setting up your airpump

No assembly of the airpump itself should be required, but you will need to attach it to the airdriven filter, airstone or bubble wall via airline. The air pump sits outside and preferably above the aquarium. If you wish to locate the airpump anywhere below the water level, you should fit a checkvalve or make a vertical loop in the airline above the aquarium to prevent water siphoning into the pump if the power goes off.

Servicing your airpump

Air pumps do not need cleaning or lubrication, but eventually the diaphragm inside will stretch or split and will need to be replaced. To check the diaphragm, turn off and unplug the pump, then remove the base (usually held in place by four or five screws. Inside the pump will be the diaphragm and armature as illustrated above, plus the motor coil. In twin outlet pumps there will be two diaphragms, and (usually) two arms, although some run two diaphragms from a single modified assembly. The diaphragm sits over a cylindrical chamber (the air chamber) which leads to the air outlet. You can usually examine the diaphragm without removing it from the air chamber. If the diaphragm needs to be replaced, it is usually easiest to do so by taking out the air chamber, diaphragm and airchamber as a unit. A screw on the side of the pump may be holding the air chamber in place, in other models it simply slides in. Undo the screw if needed and then gently manoeuver the air chamber, armature and diaphragm out of the pump. The diaphragm can then be removed from the airchamber. In most pumps the diaphragm can be unscrewed from the armature. In others it is attached and the whole armature must be replaced. Once a new diaphragm has been fitted to the armature, fit the diaphragm snugly over the airchamber and replace the whole assembly.

Inside the airchamber are flapper valves which will also eventually wear out, although they do last longer than the diaphragms. The flapper valves can be replaced while the air chamber is out for replacement of the diaphragm. To replace the flapper valves, use tweezers to remove the rubber lugs which hold them in place, drop in the new flapper, and replace the rubber lugs.

Trouble shooting

Problem: Air pump is not running, there is no noise or vibration from the pump
Possible causes & remedies:
1. Check power supply, make sure airpump is plugged in and turned on at the power
2. Burnt-out motor or broken wiring: these cannot be repaired, you will need to replace the airpump.

Problem: Airpump runs, but little or no air is produced
Possible causes & remedies:
1. Clogged airstone may be restricting airflow: for sandstone airstones, rinse in hot water or replace with a new airstone. For synthetic diffusers and bubblewalls, poke new holes with a sharp pin.
2. Kinks or other restrictions in airline: check that airline is not kinked or restricted or of excessive length. Make sure taps or g-clamps are not turned right off
3. Air leak in airline or fittings: Check that air is not escaping from loose or broken connectors or taps.
4. Worn or split diaphragm or flapper valves: check the diaphragm and replace if it has been stretched, has split, or is stiff. Replace flapper valves if they are split or stiff.
5. Air pump not powerful enough: to run a very long airstone/bubblewall, or to run an airstone in a very deep tank, a powerful airpump is needed. A stronger airpump may also be needed if the airline connecting it is very long.

Problem: Airpump is excessively noisy
Possible causes & remedies:
1. Worn or split diaphragm, bent or loose swing arm: check the diaphragm and replace if it has been stretched, has split, or is stiff. Check arm is firmly in position and straighten if needed.
2. Vibration of airpump against solid object: make sure that the airpum body is not in contact with the stand, cabinet or any other object.

Problem: Water inside airpump
Possible causes & remedies:
1. Water has siphoned into the pump: disconnect power immediately! Disassemble pump and allow to dry completely before reassembling and checking to see if it still works. If it does not, it will need to be replaced.

Best Aquarium Product Deals On Amazon Prime Day For Your Aquatic Friends Get The Best Bargain For The Best Quality Now!


Giving the best for your pets are always the best feeling in the world. To make it better? Getting these deals on sale! While some of these essential products re must have items, do not hesitate to upgrade them, for your pets deserve the best. On Amazon Prime Day, huge discounts will be available exclusively for Amazon Prime Members for an impressive range of products from lots of brands. If you are not a Prime Member yet, sign up for a 30-day free trial immediately! Don’t miss your chance to get the best bargain during this 2-day extravaganza! We have selected the best deals for you and your aquatic friends. Scroll down to check out these items and learn more on the best way to shop on Prime Day!

Don’t forget to see other products on amazon.com

Check out more of our recommended products and learn more about the most efficient shopping ways here! Here is a Cool LED Aquarium Light

Automatic Electric Fish Feeder

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Best Automatic Electric Fish Feeder For When You Are Away

Easy Feed –  Highly adjustable portion control with up to 3x feeds per day. Usually use larger wafer but doesn’t fit. Pellets work nice, feed and dump smoothly. Easy to set up dry dumps to test portions and cycles before putting on aquarium for automatic feeding. Probably get two weeks from single fill. 

Automatic Fish Feeder With Portions

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Best Feeder For Variety

Great device –  It uses one AA battery that supposedly lasts a year. Just don’t have to think about feeding anymore. It’s slow action means it doesn’t just dump the entire slot’s contents of food but, rather, slowly pushes the slot over the hole gradually dispensing it which I think is better.

Versatile Water Pump

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Best Water Pump For All Water Types

Superb filter system for all Aquarium tanks –  You don’t have to shut it down. Pull the cartridge, rinse the new one with distilled water, slowly replace it back in the formed slots. They’re pretty quiet but can get the “bubbling noise” when your water level drops below a certain point. Keeping the water level up is a good thing and remember, those bio wheels add oxygen to the water.

Powerful Water Pump For Large Water Bodies

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Best Large Water Body Pump

Powerful with no issues –  It works great – the pump rate is good enough that my waterfall and large sand filter are supplied with a constant source of water. The pump has been running 24/7 for a week now with no issues. 

Sponge Bob Fish House

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Best Fish Tank Decoration and Toy For Fish

The perfect accent to a tank – Squidward’s house is much cooler decorations since if a guest recognizes it it’s awesome! And if they don’t recognize it from the show, they just think it’s a cool Easter Island old decoration. Win-win, love it! It is a decent size too and my fish can swim in and out easily. 

Nitrifying Bacteria

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Best For Speeding Up The Ammonia Cycle For Easy Maintenance

Instant cycling –  There are many products on the market that claim to “instantly cycle” an aquarium. In my opinion, there is nothing that works instantly but this comes close. The first thing to consider is you need an ammonia source for this to work. A fish will work but it is very stressful and some consider it cruel. Fish food rotting works but will leave a dirty tank. The best thing is to buy a good test kit and some ammonia designed for an aquarium. Dose the aquarium to get ammonia and add this product.

Colorful Light Tank

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Best Colorful Bubbling Tank

Sleek and compact –  If you’re looking for more than a basic tank for your Beta fish, etc. That settle with this one. The filter works very well. His water is lasting about 3x longer without need to replace it with fresh water. The pump is extremely quiet.

Water Stabiliser

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Best Stabiliser To Prevent New Tank Syndrome

Superb bio quality –  Ammonia and Nitrite levels are always at 0ppm. The beneficial bacteria in Seachem Stability are very hardy and are able to adapt to a large range of different environments and conditions. I do huge 50% water changes during routine maintenance and the bacteria hold up quite well in my bio wheels with new water keeping toxic ammonia and nitrite at zero.

What is Amazon Prime Day?

Amazon Prime Day is the biggest annual discount sales event exclusively for Amazon Prime members. For 48 hours, you can find great deals on almost every product you come across.  Discounts back this year, larger than ever, with flash savings, lightening deals all for you to choose from. To give back and support entrepreneurial spirit, Amazon Prime Day this year specifically support small businesses in through your purchase. Get your free Amazon Prime membership and get too-good-to-miss bargains off an impressive collection of products now!

When is Amazon Prime Day?

Amazon Prime Day usually comes in the summer. Expect one in June or July 2022!

Where to look for the best products and deals?

There are numerous items from an impressive range of brands to shop from. Check out these blogs to find the best fit for your aquarium, making your aquatic friends house more colorful and enjoyable. Discover the best products by viewing and coming up with a shopping plan. So, get ready, and mark down your items before someone else get there first!

How to get the best offers?

  • Sign up your Prime Membership for free! If you are a student, enjoy up to 6 months of free Prime benefits and offers exclusively for students.
  • Bookmark the Prime Day 2022 page and start looking for deals early, click add to cart and check out immediately if there is a super cheap bargain, these flash sales only last for a few hours or even minutes.
  • Click the Watch This Deal prompt on the Amazon mobile app. There will be a blue Prime Day logo marked on products just in case you missed them.
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Score the hottest discounts for the best quality goods in this annual most anticipated discount event. Add these items to your shopping cart now! Happy Prime Day!

8 Book Recommendations 2022: Details About The Cichlids Of The Lake Victoria Basin


The Cichlids of the Lake Victoria Basin

Welcome to our site. We hope to make this the largest source of information about Cichlids of the Lake Victoria Basin on the Internet. If you have anything you would like to submit we would love to use it.

Back-To-Nature Guide To Tanganyika Cichlids

by Ad Konings

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Best Back-To-Nature Guide To Tanganyika Cichlids

Must have for anyone who might order Tanganyikan cichlids – There is no other group of aquarium fishes that has evoked such a passion among hobbyists as Tanganyikan cichlids have. For many an aquarist, they represent a life-long addiction to keeping, breeding, and, most of all, observing these interesting fishes. Why is this? The answer is easy: Tanganyika cichlids are the most interesting aquarium fishes known today. They provide hobbyists with a combination of attractive fishes, interesting behavior, and easy maintenance, with the added benefit that the sale of their offspring can sometimes cover most of the cost of keeping them. This guide provides an overview of the species currently available and some basic information on how to keep them in the most natural way.

128 pages, 320 color photos, hardcover, and size: 7″ x 9.5″.    

Back-To-Nature Guide To Malawi Cichlids

by Ad Konings

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Best Back-To-Nature Guide To Malawi Cichlids

Very good reference – Malawi cichlids have been, and will probably always remain, among the most popular aquarium fishes of all time. Their briliant colours, ease of maintenance, and interesting behaviour are the three most important reasons for their popularity. A selection of these fishes is all you need to create an interesting and decorative aquarium in your home. In order to enjoy your Malawi cichlid aquarium to the full, however, it is essential to take their specific maintenance requirements into account. This guide provides expert advice on all the elements of proper maintenance, such as choice of aquarium (with details of the minimum size required for each species discussed), creating the correct water conditions, providing appropriate decor, feeding, etc. Follow these basic guidelines and you will soon have a little piece of Lake Malawi in your living room, for you, your family, and your friends to enjoy.

128 pages, 300 color photos, hardcover, and size: 7″ x 9.5″.

Back-To-Nature Guide To Discus

by Dick Au

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Best Back-To-Nature Guide To Discus

The Nature of Discus Fish. – Discus are by far the most elegant and regal of all ornamental fishes. At one time, they were extremely expensive and the varieties were limited. Today, as a result of hard work by hobbyists and professional breeders alike, they are becoming abundant and affordable. With names like Blue Diamond, Red Diamond, Marlboro Red, and Golden Sunrise, discus have color varieties sure to please any hobbyist. Be it in a decorated community aquarium or in a tank all alone, discus will add vibrancy and fascination to your hobby.

The author Dick Au (San Francisco, California) has been involved with discus for over forty years. His first experience with discus dated back to the early 1950’s when he observed the first commercial spawning of brown discus while working in a fish farm in the Orient. A well-known breeder of aquarium fishes, he consistently produces quantities of quality discus year after year. He has received numerous awards for contributions to the aquarium hobby as well as lifetime memberships to several aquarium societies. Insisting on keeping discus as a hobby and not as a business, the author spends much of his time giving lectures at aquarium societies, judging fish shows, and writing about discus.

128 pages, 300 color photos, hardcover, and size: 7″ x 9.5″.

Enjoying Cichlids

Edited by Ad Konings

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Best Enjoying Cichlids

Thorough, authoritative book on cichlids – This book has been written by 12 authors, each of them a specialist for many years in his or her field, and is the distillation of a total of more than 200 years experience in keeping cichlids. The result is an invaluable guide to the essentials of enjoying cichlids. It is illustrated with more than 180 excellent color photos.

It has 240 pages, a format of 6″ x 9″, and is hardbound.

Lake Victoria Rock Cichlids

by Ole Seehausen

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Best Lake Victoria Rock Cichlids

Rock Dwelling Cichlids Only – This is the first popular book about Lake Victoria cichlids, and it reports about a species assemblage that is largely new to aquarists and scientists alike. The 173 species discussed constitute a Mbuna-like species assemblage of Lake Victoria cichlids, that was previously believed not to exist! The “new” cichlid assemblage carries a great potential both for biological research and for the aquarium hobby. The purpose of this book is to give a first introduction to this newly discovered fauna, and to make researchers, hobbyists, and conservationists aware of ist riches. Most emphasis is laid upon the presentation of the various species complexes and species, with much new information about distribution, ecology, and behaviour in their natural environment. For this purpose, underwater work using SCUBA was done for the first time in Lake Victoria. High time therefore, to look at Lake Victoria’s rock cichlids more carefully.

It has 304 pages, a hardcover, and a size of 6″ x 9.5″.

Tanganyika Cichlids In Their Natural Habitat

by Ad Konings

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Best Tanganyika Cichlids In Their Natural Habitat

Very informative – In this completely new treatment of the cichlids of Lake Tanganyika, more than 200 different species are characterized by their distribution, coloration, and habitat preferences. More than 920 photographs (the majority never published before) illustrate the cichlids from the entire lake; 683 photos (75%!) were taken underwater and show the cichlids at their best: in their natural habitat.

The book is a large edition (8″ x 11″) with 272 pages.

Darwin’s Dreampond: Drama in Lake Victoria

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Best Darwin’s Dreampond: Drama in Lake Victoria

A well written intellectual adventureDarwin’s Dreampond tells the evolutionary story of the extraordinary “furu” and the battlefield leading to extinction. Tijs Goldschmidt skillfully blends a masterful discussion of the principles of neo-Darwinian evolution and speciation with a history of Lake Victoria’s ecosystem. The science unfolds in the context of the engaging first-person narrative of Goldschmidt’s adventures and misadventures as a field researcher. An astute observer and a clear and witty writer, he warmly portrays the colors and textures of the landscapes and the lives of the local people as he interacts with them during the course of his fieldwork.

Lake Victoria Basin Cichlids

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Best Lake Victoria Basin Cichlids

Lake Victoria Cichlids – Several cichlid varieties constitute ninety percent of the fish in Lake Victoria and surrounding waters. All make colorful additions to the hobbyist’s fish tank. Here is a wealth of advice and information on keeping these fascinating fish. Barron’s comprehensive Pet Owner’s Manuals are heavily illustrated and filled with useful information. They instruct owners on how to care for their dogs, cats, birds, fish, and other animals. Books give advice on purchasing and acquiring, health care, feeding, and much more. Clear, straightforward texts are accompanied by high-quality full-color photos and anatomically accurate line art, as well as helpful tables and charts.

We would like to thank George Reclos and Jason Selong for letting us use their photos, and the Oklahoma City Zoo, Paul Lewis, and Bruce Wales for letting us photograph their fish.  We would also like to thank Les Kaufman and Ole Seehausen for answering our questions.

“There are some who can live without wild things and some who cannot. Like winds and sunsets, wild things were taken for granted until progress began to do away with them. Now we face the question of whether a still higher  “standard of living”  is worth its cost in things natural, wild, and free.” – Aldo Leopold

All images and information on this site are copyrighted to this site unless otherwise stated.

Water Changes Of Saltwater Aquarium Maintenance


Water changes are an essential part of your saltwater aquarium maintenance schedule. Each week any evaporated water should be replaced with prepared saltwater and any algae growing on the glass removed appropriately. Partial water changes can be performed either weekly or fortnightly depending on how well the system is maintained overall in addition to the species of fish and other creatures within the tank. Siphoning of any excess debris or waste matter should be undertaken with fortnightly water changes.

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Best Penn-Plax Cascade Hang-on Aquarium Filter with Quad Filtration System

Good Filter-Incredible Value – This filter is quiet and well-made. It took a minute or less to assemble, and everything fit well, had a quality feel, and fit perfectly together. The filter media last extremely well, much longer than the carbon contained permanently within the replaceable cartridge. 

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Best Saltwater Aquarium Marine LED Fish Tank Light

Good quality and price. – The timer is very nice with sunrise sunset option, the fixture is slim, and the brightness is exceptional. Even with new bulbs tank become more beautiful. The corals seem to be responding well and the fish look bright and colorful. definitely recommend!!

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Best Coral Aquarium Decoration Fish Tank

Coral Aquarium Accessory – The thickness and shear colors look great in my tank. The fish love resting in it as much as swimming through. Great product and great price. Highly recommend this.

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Best Aquarium Circulation Pump 360 Degree Rotatable

Powerful little wave maker – This is an awesome wave maker! It creates a powerful flow in the tank. You’ve set it up where it sits a little above the water just because it was pretty powerful and the tetras had trouble swimming. If you balance it on the top of the water it’s perfect. It circulates the water very well. The magnetic grip is super strong and you can adjust it from the outside. It can be a little noisy if you run the water on top, but it sounds like a fountain. (Also it was designed to be completely under water). It has been helping to keep the water clean for sure. 

An important tip when undertaking water changes is to have the saltwater pre-mixed a day early as the mixture is less caustic and this will ensure your fish are not harmed or shocked with the sudden addition of new water. Alternatively, if your local fish store sells fresh saltwater, I would recommend using this if convenient as this is the most natural solution and it may assist in reducing abnormal algae growth. It also means nothing artificial is going into the aquarium and this assists in the overall balance of your saltwater aquarium ecosystem.

On top of ongoing water changes, you may also need to top up the water level of your saltwater aquarium due to evaporation, especially during warmer months. Prior to topping up your water, conduct a quick salinity check. In most cases the salinity may have increased slightly due to the increase in salt due to evaporation. In this circumstance it is acceptable to just ad freshwater that has been treated via reverse osmosis. Alternatively if the salinity is a little on the low side you can easily mix a portion of salt mix to the top up water to bring the levels up.

Saltwater Aquarium Equipment & Tank Setup For Beginners


A major element of saltwater aquarium maintenance comes down to your equipment. Correct maintenance of your equipment is essential to the well-being of your reef and fish. The protein skimmer cup should be cleaned daily.  It will not hurt the aquarium greatly if this skipped one day every now and then, however, skipping anymore could jeopardize the health of the aquarium.  Whilst monitoring the health of the fish and cleaning the skimmer, the water temperature should also be checked and any required adjustments should also be made.

On a monthly basis, it is recommended that the whole protein skimmer be completely cleaned, including the cleaning of the cup in addition to all hoses and tubes.  If any air stones are present in the tank they should either be substituted with a new one or alternatively cleaned and any carbon from carbon filtration systems should also be changed.

It is recommended when conducting saltwater aquarium maintenance that every three months, all filter canisters and hoses should be comprehensively cleaned inside and out in addition to switching air pads within the air pump.  Care should also be taken to inspect for any signs of damage to impellers, interchange air valves, and replace UV tubes if a UV filter is being utilized.

This saltwater tank setup guide for beginners can help you to kickstart, more first-time aquarium owner mistakes can be found HERE.

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Best Tetra Aquarium 20 Gallon Fish Tank Kit Includes LED Lighting and Decor

The Awesome Tank has Hinged on Its Hood!!! – There are plenty of artificial plants in the kit for a start-up and adding the background really “fills” it up. Make sure you have a very sturdy base to set this on as it is very heavy with the water and gravel! The plastic plants are nice, and if you want them they’re all the plants you will need. They have no bad edges for a delicate betta. But live plants are a lot better for a tank, and make maintenance a lot easier

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Best Wide View Curved Shape Fish Tank with Undetachable 3D Rockery Background Decor

Amazing small tank!! – This tank is extremely nice. Very well made. Absolutely perfect for a planted beta setup. The filter has great flow and comes with an extended spray bar. The background is made very nicely and doesn’t take up a whole lot of the tank. The light seems to be of great quality and seems to be doing very well growing plants so far also! Definitely recommend this tank hands down!

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Best Adjustable Multifunction Submersible or External Powerful Return Pump for Saltwater & Freshwater Fish Tank

Pump and go submergible floor pump – Well this pump is a great invention for those problems that arise with a suction nozzle head that just pumps it right out of your house. A must-have for anyone that’s worried about fish tank leak problems or even plumbing problems that happen around the house to get the water out soon as possible

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Best Aqueon QuietFlow LED PRO Aquarium Power Filters

A great workhorse HOB filter – As long as the water level is at the bottom of the pump box these filters have always self-primed, even with sponge pre-filters attached. These filters continue to function even once the pre-filters are clogged, with a slightly diminished flow rate. I’ve never had any problems with them regarding the operation.

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Best Penn-Plax Cascade Hang-on Aquarium Filter With Quad Filtration System

Effective little filter – This filter the way it comes is terrible. It easily passes dirt through because of a stupid design that leaves a gap under the filter element. However, if a cotton ball is placed under the filter element, all dirt and debris are trapped!

On a daily basis as part of your regular saltwater aquarium maintenance, the equipment and accessories should be inspected and care should be taken to ensure that everything is functioning suitably.  Check that there are no leaks on the floor surrounding the aquarium and that the pump sounds like it is running properly.  As you become more acquainted with the saltwater aquarium equipment it becomes easier to detect any peculiar sounds from the equipment which may suggest that it is on the way out.

When you are done setting up your aquarium, you may have some worries about introducing your new fish into your already prepared aquarium. Your worries may stem from the fact that you don’t want parasites to enter the aquarium you have prepared. Well, you need not worry too much. You can remove the parasites from your fish by just dipping the fish into freshwater or into seawater to remove all single-celled external parasites. When setting up the reef for your saltwater aquarium, you may not need to start finding where your reef comes from. This is because there are professionals in the business. These professionals grow and build reefs personally. You can therefore buy reef that has been harvested from their farms, instead of bothering how to find them yourself.

If you are thinking of delving into the aquarium, note that any aquarium project will need your time and commitment if it will be successful. That is why it needs a lot of research before you even start at all. Half preparation will make you give up halfway into your project.

When setting up your aquarium you must have provision for the right level of oxygen in the aquarium. This will be achieved when you have the right air pumps. This will help you to maintain the right oxygen and carbon dioxide, especially in heavily planted aquariums.

I’m certain now that you have read to the middle part of this piece of writing you have discovered that there is more to learn about salt Water Aquarium or Tarting A Salt Water Aquarium, Salt Freshwater Aquarium or even fish Marine Tropical, than meets the eyes, right? If yes, then the rest of this writing will show you a lot more that can make you a professional as regards the topic.

When setting up your saltwater aquarium, you need equipment that will help you to measure the salinity and chemical composition of the water. You need to also take into consideration the lighting and filtration that will make it possible for the combination of fishes that you have to survive.

The major beauty of the aquarium is that you can have the size that you choose for yourself. You can have the one that can easily be placed in your home the one that you think can add beauty to your environment. But you need to know the simple basic steps that are required for setting up an aquarium in your home.

Why a Saltwater Aquarium?

There’s nothing more spectacular than the diversity of the ocean. A Saltwater aquarium setup allows you to bring a little sample of that spectacle into your own living room, containing beautiful saltwater fish, live corals, and more. Compared to plain freshwater tanks (which commonly contain goldfish and other lake-bred fish varieties), there are many more options if you’re planning to choose a saltwater aquarium setup. The fish and other ocean creatures you’ll be able to host range from beautiful to fascinating to downright weird, some displaying flashy colors while others exude a quiet grace.

Types of Saltwater Aquariums?

There are several different setups for a saltwater aquarium, ranging from the simplest to the most complex: a fish-only tank, a FOWLR (fish-only with live rock) tank, and a reef tank. While containing only fish in your tank is the cheapest and easiest to maintain out of the three options, it can be quite exciting to watch coral formations grow and develop over the course of your saltwater tank’s life. The choice comes down to one of investment

The most popular choice and my personal favorite is a reef tank. This is the pinnacle of saltwater aquarium setup and will allow you to host a number of fish, corals, and invertebrates in your new saltwater aquarium. It takes the most effort to set up and maintain however if you are going to make the effort initially you might as well go all out. Seeing a reef develop before your very eyes in your saltwater aquarium is mesmerizing and worth the time and money invested.

Saltwater Aquarium Setup Overview

A saltwater aquarium setup is more involved and complicated than it would be with a freshwater tank, but the results are stunning when done correctly. While you can do much of the planning and decision-making (about which fish and corals and invertebrates to feature), it often pays off to call in an expert for the more technical components of saltwater aquarium setup.

You’ll need to ensure that your tank is leak-proof and level. A filled aquarium can weigh as much as 10 pounds per gallon, meaning that placement and careful setup is critical to ensure that you don’t have hundreds of pounds of water crashing down on your living room. Water needs to be de-chlorinated (or treated via reverse osmosis), before being treated with a salt mix. Checking the pH balance (as well as the balance of nitrite and nitrate) is critical to ensuring that your fish will survive in the water. Before being added to the tank, and fish need to be quarantined and acclimatized to the water content that they’ll be added. This is a lot to manage when first setting up the tank, however, the results are that you’ll have a stunning and well-maintained attraction in your home.

This is just a brief overview of what is involved when deciding to establish a saltwater aquarium. Continue your learning with us at TheAquariumExchange.com

How To Choose The Best Amazon Aquarium Internal Power Filters? 2022


Internal powerfilters are one of the most popular filters for small to medium sized aquaria.

These filters use an impellor driven water pump to pull water through a sponge filter. The sponge acts as a mechanical filter and will also support some nitrifying bacteria. The sponge filter can be cleaned and re-used many times, and, if care is taken, it will retain most of its biological filtration ability. Eventually the sponge will start to collapse and will need to be replaced, when this is done most of the biological filtration ability is lost. The new sponge can be seeded with nitrifying bacteria by placing it in the aquarium for a period of time (ideally a few weeks) before it is needed, or by washing it together with the old sponge in some water from the aquarium. How long a sponge will last depends on the type of sponge, but 6 to 18 months is common. More expensive sponges will generally last longer than cheaper ones; overall the replacement cost of sponges is relatively low. Some models use more than one sponge, replacing only one sponge at a time will help retain biological filtration.

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Best Tidal Power Aquarium Filter – 35 Gallon Fish Tank Filter

Quality and excellence – A large removable media basket makes maintenance a breeze with the options of adding filter floss and/or carbon quite feasible. Adjustable flow, quiet operation and a good flow rate all contribute to it performing its job superbly. An attractive design also makes the Seachem Tidal 35 less of an eyesore which many filters, especially HOB filters are known to be

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Best Aqueon QuietFlow LED PRO Aquarium Power Filter

Great for smaller tank – So far this is a great little filter. It sits on the outside of the tank so doesn’t consume alot of space inside leaving more room for your fish. There is a hum to it however. It is not silent but not disturbing…for us anyhow. The price was comparable to others but again not “Quiet” The water is clear and our new fish seem happy.

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Best Aqueon Quietflow E Internal Power Filter

Flows like a proper filter – Works extremely well, flows like a proper filter. Can’t hear it running it’s SO quiet. If you need a great filter for a 2.5 gallon or bigger, it’s perfect. Flow is perfect, and doesn’t disrupt the water that much at all.

Internal power filters come in a wide range of sizes and water turnovers. Models with higher turnover usually have larger sponges, which provide greater filtration area. Some have a compartment or other space for holding carbon, other chemical filtration media, or additional mechanical media. Since these are usually small, chemical filtration ability is limited.

These filters are suitable mainly for small to medium tanks. It is the area available for filtration, rather than rate of water turnover that limits their ability, plus their limited capacity for biological filtration. They are not suitable for marine tanks except as supplementary mechanical filtration. (See our marine fishkeeping tutorial for more information). However, internal power filters are an excellent addition to any tank which has a high load of organic waste, as they will help clear the water and prevent the primary biological filter from becoming clogged with detritus.

Getting the most out of this filter system:

Choose the appropriate model for the size of your tank and number of fish. (Remember that good filtration requires turning your tank volume over three times an hour, more filtration may be needed if you have more or larger fish).

Rinse the sponge gently in water from the aquarium to clean it of organic matter (this will minimise loss of nitrifying bacteria). When replacing the sponge, ideally seed the new sponge with nitrifying bacteria before it is needed.

Clean around the impellor every 2-3 months to ensure it runs smoothly, and replace the impellor if necessary.

Troubleshooting:

Problem: Filter does not run, ie. impellor is not turning

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Check power supply, make sure filter is plugged in and turned on at the power
2. Impellor may be jammed: gentle shaking will sometimes start the filter, but the impellor or impellor well may need to be cleaned.
3. Faulty/worn impellor or broken shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.
4. Burnt-out motor or broken wiring: these cannot be repaired, you will need to replace the filter.

Problem: Impellor turns but little or no water movement occurs

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Clogged sponge may be restricting water flow: rinse sponge in aquarium water
2. Restriction of water intakes or outlets: clean any debris from the intakes and outlet
3. Faulty/worn impellor: Check the impellor, ensure the fan is fixed to the impellor (some spin and click, but should only have about a quarter turn free play), replace impellor if needed.

Problem: Filter runs but no air bubbles are produced

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Is venturi in use? The filter should not produce bubbles unless it has a venturi system attached (bubbles are not essential)
2. Is the venturi intake above water level? Is it restricted? Place the intake above the water and remove or adjust taps or other retrictors
3. Position of filter: If the filter is too deep in the tank air may not be drawn in by the venturi.
4. Clogged sponge, intakes or outlets: Anything that restricts water flow may prevent air intake, rinse sponge in aquarium water, clean debris from water intakes/outlet.

Problem: Filter produces excessive noise

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Venturi is in use: the sound of air rushing through can be quite loud. Use a restictor valve, tap or clamp on the air intake to restrict air flow, or remove the venturi altogether. Ensure water level is high enough to cover the venturi intake attachment point.
2. Clogged sponge or intakes causing flow restriction and back pressure: Rinse sponge in aquarium water, remove debris that is clogging intakes.
3. Faulty/worn impellor or shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.

Problem: Filter is running properly, but the aquarium does not stay clean

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Old or clogged sponge: Rinse the sponge in water from the aquarium. If the sponge is compacted, you will need to replace it.
2. Brand new sponge not seeded with bacteria, sponge cleaned of good bacteria: When the filter is brand new, or if you replace the sponge without seeding it with good bacteria, the filter will not work as well. Good bacteria help to break down wastes and to trap fine particles. If you clean the sponge with tap water or detergents, or if the sponge is allowed to dry out, this will kill off the good bacteria and lead to decreased filter performance. You can add cultures of good bacteria to help these establish (or re-establish) in the filter.
3. Not enough filtration for tank load. If the filter is not an appropriate model for the tank size, or if the tank is overcrowded or stocked with messy species, the filtration may not be adequate, even if the filter is running properly. Reduce the load on the tank, or upgrade filtration.

Does a better quality filter mean higher performance?

Many people are told that they should buy a better quality filter as it is better for their fish. Is it?

Not necessarily!

For example, I was recently talking to a friend who had purchased a Fluval 3 plus power filter for their aquarium. A senior salesperson from one of the largest and most reputable stores told them the Fluval 3 plus was inadequate – and suggested an Eheim 2012 as an alternative.

What’s wrong with this picture?

If you look through the power filters in our product section it will tell you the following straightforward facts. The water turnover of the Eheim 2012 is 600l/hr. The Fluval 3 plus is 700l/hr. The Eheim has a sponge volume for biological filtration of 195cc, the Fluval has 234cc. The Fluval offers better performance in both respects! So, how can they say the Eheim is better for the job?

Here are the facts:

What about features? Both have adjustable flow and directional output. The Fluval has a two-part sponge that allows bacterial filtration to be maintained, plus room for extra media and a flow indicator to show when maintenance is needed. The Eheim has a ceramic shaft which should mean longer impellor wear. Both are very easy to use and to clean.

What about quality? Both are European brands with a very good reputation and a two-year guarantee.

What about price? The Fluval is around $50 cheaper.

Therefore, you should always judge the performance of a filter independently of its quality and cost, and decide what is most important to you. A higher performance filter will keep the water cleaner or support a larger load of fish – we think that’s the most important thing! Of course, you also want to get good value for money, and features that make a filter easier to use are always appreciated. So don’t be blinded by sales bull… Choose the best filter for the job, taking into account your budget and the features you want. We aim to give you the facts, and advice based on experience. Remember – if you get what’s best for your fish – it makes the aquarium hobby easier and more enjoyable for you.

Knowing The Importance Of Filtration: Mechanical, Chemical & Biological Filtration (2022)


This section of our information pages is design to provide both beginner and more advanced hobbyists with a greater understanding of filtration in general, and of the different filtration systems that are available.

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This section covers the definitions of the basic filtration types.

What are the types of aquarium filtration?

In the broadest possible sense, filtration is the act of passing water through some sort of filtration media. The aim is two-fold: to keep the aquarium looking clean for the benefit of the hobbyist, and, more importantly, to provide a suitable environment for the aquarium inhabitants.

There are three types of filtration: Mechanical, chemical and biological.

  • Mechanical filtration is simply the physical removal of solids and suspended particles from the water. Mechanical filtration media include filter “wool” (actually fiberglass), poly pads (a fibrous matting), and sponge. If a finer material is used, more and smaller particles will be retained, but the filter media may also become clogged more quickly.
  • Chemical filtration is the removal of dissolved compounds by adsorption. The most common chemical filtration media are carbon and zeolite. Various organic impurities, dissolved metals, and chlorine can be removed by chemical filtration.
  • Biological filtration is the breakdown of waste products by naturally occurring bacteria. Biological filter media do not break down these waste products themselves but are designed to provide a large surface area and suitable growing conditions for these bacteria. Biological filter media include ceramic or siliceous noodles, plastic bio-balls, sand, and gravel. Any inert material with a large surface area can be a biological filter medium, the larger the surface area, the better.

Which filtration type is the most important for the health of the aquarium fish?

Of these types of filtration, biological is the most important in terms of the health of the fish. It is absolutely essential if delicate species and marine fish are to be kept. Mechanical filtration is what keeps the water looking clear, and is also important in that it helps remove solid organic wastes. Most mechanical filters also provide a degree of biological filtration. Chemical filtration is not essential, but helps to keep the water crystal clear and may protect against the build-up of undesirable chemicals in an aquarium. Since most chemical filtration will remove medications it should not be used in quarantine tanks or where fish are being treated for the disease.

How To Choose The Best Amazon Aquarium Trickle Filters? (2022)


Trickle filters are a specialised filtration system, used mainly on quite large aquaria, or to run more than one aquarium.

Trickle filters are biological filters which sit underneath the tank. They consist of a sump, which is simply an aquarium or other water receptacle which contains a biological filter medium, usually bioballs, through which the water trickles. Water is gravity fed into the filter and spread over the bioballs, which are usually held in a partition of the sump, using either a spray bar or drip tray, then is pumped back into the tank from the sump. Since the bioballs are usually at least partially exposed to the air, there is no oxygen limitation and biological nitrification (ie conversion of toxic ammonia and nitrite into nitrate) is very efficient. Trickle filters may be designed with additonal partitions to house mechanical and/or chemical filter media.

Disadvantages of trickle filters are their large size, very high price, and the fact that they must sit below the aquarium. A trickle filter must usually be custom-built to suit the aquarium it will be used on – and the cabinet it will be housed in, where applicable. They are relatively high maintenance as they are prone to evaporation and if the water level is not topped up, the return pump may run dry. Additionally, when used on marine tanks, evaporation must be compensated for to avoid fluctuations in salinity.

Getting water from the tank into the trickle is another thing that must be considered, ideally before the tank and or cabinet are built. There are two ways to do this: Firstly, a hole can be drilled in the tank and bulkhead fitting or a water sleeve used. This must usually be done when the aquarium is manufactured. Secondly, a hang-on self-starting siphon can be used. These automatically stop and restart in case of power failure or when the pump is turned off for maintenance.

Although once hailed as revolutionary, trickle filters are bulky and relatively expensive (3 to 4 times the cost of canister filters) and have now been superseded by modern canisters for home use in many applications. However, trickle filters are often used by stores, breeders, importers and serious hobbyists as they can be set up to filter more than one aquarium, which makes them much more cost-effective.

They are sometimes used on large marine tanks as they allow protein skimmers to be housed in the sump, rather than taking up room in the aquarium. However, the very efficient nitrification provided by a trickle is not alweays desirable, eg in reef aquaria where corals are the main focus. While a trickle will quickly remove ammonia and nitrite, it converts these to nitrate, which is detrimental to corals. Many modern reef keeping methods do away with trickle filters (and sometimes with all forms of traditional biological filtration, especially where no or very few fish are kept) and instead utilise protein skimming and natural filtration by organisms found on live rock and sand. However, a sump without biological media is sometimes still used to house the skimmer and other equipment.

Getting the most out of this filter system:

Plan ahead if you choose trickle filtration: be sure your cabinet is large enough to fit the filter and consider your options for getting the water out of the tank and into the filter. Choose a large enough pump to return water to the aquarium, taking into account the vertical distance from the sump to the top of the aquarium and the turn-over required.

Maintenance should be performed regularly on the spray bar or drip tray, and any prefilters should be cleaned.

Troubleshooting trickle filters

Problem: Filter does not run, ie. impellor is not turning

Possible causes & remedies:

  1. Check power supply, make sure filter is plugged in and turned on at the power
  2. Impellor may be jammed: gentle shaking will sometimes start the pump, but the impellor or impellor well may need to be cleaned.
  3. Faulty/worn impellor or broken shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.
  4. Burnt-out motor or broken wiring: these cannot be repaired, you will need to replace the pump.

Problem: Impellor turns but little or no water movement occurs

Possible causes & remedies:

  1. Restriction of water intake strainer or prefilter: Clean strainer or prefilter sponge
  2. Faulty/worn impellor: Check the impellor, ensure the fan is fixed to the impellor (some spin and click, but should only have about a quarter turn free play), replace impellor if needed.
  3. Lift height too high for pump capacity: the higher up the water must be pumped, the greater the decrease in flow rate. Check the maximum head height, this should be at least twice the height to which you wish to pump.
  4. Air block in pump: Ensure water level is adequate, flush water through pump or shake pump if submerged to dislodge air. Ensure pump intake is away from any source of bubbles.
  5. Restriction of flow by outlet hose or attachments: if the pump is attached to a hose make sure it is of adequate diameter as narrow hose can resrict flow. Clean debris from the hose or other attachments with a flexible brush or pipe cleaner if clogged.

Problem: Filter produces excessive noise

Possible causes & remedies:

  1. Faulty/worn impellor or shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.
  2. Restriction of water intake strainer or prefilter: Clean strainer or prefilter sponge.
  3. Air being drawn through pump: Ensure water level is adequate and pump is away from sources of bubbles

Troubleshooting trickle filters

Problem: Spray bar does not turn

Possible causes & remedies:

  1. Restriction of water flow: clean plumbing and spray bar
  2. Worn or damaged spray bar: replace spray bar assembly.

Problem: Water does not flow down into trickle filter

Possible causes & remedies:

  1. Air-block in self-starting siphon: draw out any air using the air-bleed. Ensure air bubbles are not drawn into the siphon
  2. Blockage in overflow siphon box or pipework: clean pipes and overflow/siphon.

Decline Of Native Cichlids: The Plight Of The Lake Victoria Species (2022)


Lake Victoria was discovered in 1858 by British explorer John Speke. It is one of the largest lakes in the world covering 26,560 sq miles. As recently as 12,500 years ago the lake was believed to be a grassy plain. This makes it the youngest of the three African rift lakes. The lake is believed to be the most rapidly developing lake in regards to the rapid growth of species numbers with over 200 distinct species developing since it came into existence. In that regards Lake Victoria may be developing species more rapidly than any other animal group in the entire world. With this in mind, it is quite tragic that the native population of cichlids is dwindling down at a very rapid rate. There are several theories that scientists have for the rapid depletion of the cichlids. I will cover each briefly in the article.

Learn More About This Lake

Best Book On Addressing The Pressing Issue of Species Disappearance

Comprehensive book – A Ecology, environmental pollution and resource management are some of the issues addressed by this comprehensive insight into the limitations, challenges and opportunities facing Lake Victoria.

The first of these reasons is one that for a number of years was believed to be the sole reason or at least the most widely published reason.  This reason is the introduction of 2 nonendemic species of fish. In the 1950s, British colonists introduced the Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) and the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The Nile Perch is quite a predatory species that is believed to be the majority of the reason for this decline. The Nile Tilapia on the other hand is a plankton eating fish that may not have had a great effect on the native cichlid population but may also be competing for food with some of the species. These fish were introduced to provide a food source for many countries. They grow much larger than the cichlids that exist in the lake.   It is this size combined with the predatory behavior of the Nile Perch that scientists believe was too much for the native populations of cichlids. However, in recent years, scientists have come up with several new theories on what is causing the decline of the native cichlid population.

Another of these new theories has to do with the vast amounts of pollution that are flowing into the Lake from the surrounding countries. The countries that surround the Lake have undergone a substantial population boom in recent years vastly increasing the amount of pollution being pumped into the lake. At the present time, oxygen levels at the bottom of the lake are not great enough to support life. Lake Victoria is on the verge of becoming a dead lake. Another part of this theory is that the visibility is so poor that the brightly colored cichlids from the lake are having trouble correctly identifying mates and therefore not mating as often. This pollution is a contributing factor to some of the other problems in the lake.

The next problem is the increase in algae levels in the lake. Pollution providing the necessary nutrients for algae growth. The algae levels are five to ten times the levels of the 1960s. This algae then die off creating more pollution contaminating the lake further. Visibility levels are measured in the lake by measuring the depth at which a white disc is visible under the surface of the water. This test has shown decreasing visibilities from a depth of about five meters in the 1930s to a depth of one meter or less in 1990. As you can see this is a serious danger to the lake. As pollution levels go up algae growth goes up. In turn, the algae that die-off creates more pollution in an apparent never-ending cycle of lake destruction. This is even having a great impact on the local populations around Lake Victoria. With these algae blooms is an increase in the dangerous blue-green algae causing more disease in the human population. Along with this growth in algae is the development of a water plant called hyacinth. This plant was unseen until 1989 and since then has exploded to choke out harbors and coves.

As you can see the situation is dire.  So in your cichlid keeping experience please don’t forget the gorgeous cichlids from Lake Victoria and their desperate plight.

How To Choose The Best Amazon Aquarium Protein Skimmers?


Protein skimming is a method of removing proteinaceous wastes that are otherwise difficult to remove and which break down over time to produce ammonia and other undesirable nitrogen compounds.

Protein skimming is a different form of filtration from all the other types discussed here. Protein skimming uses a very fine bubble to “strip” proteinaceous wastes out of the water as foam, which is then collected and removed. The same effect causes the foam produced by breaking waves at the beach. For home aquaria, protein skimming is only effective for marine tanks. It is possible to achieve freshwater protein skimming, but this requires very large reaction chambers (around 6 ft tall!) and extremely powerful pumps.

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Best Protein Skimmers for Saltwater Aquariums up to 300 Gallons

Great Skimmer Easy to install – This is made of all top quality acrylic. The controller is sensor touch, no mechanical buttons. The pump is silent and powerful. With the milk bottle design diffuser plate this is very efficient model and a really great price. Nice to see affordable protein skimmer like this available.

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Best Fish Tank Cast Acrylic Protein Skimmer For Salt Water Aquariums

Best Protein Skimmer – This device will keep your water clean because of the suction power of the pump. The water will become clear from waste and probably from fish too. For the price this thing is darn right amazing. Solid built, silent, air and flow adjustments

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Best Bubblefin Aquarium Sump Refugium DIY Kit for Protein Skimmer Sump

Easy way to make your own Refugium – Great product, the pieces width had enough clearance for and 10 gal aquarium size variance. Using square magnets ( 4 sets at $2.00 each at a local craft shop or on amazon) made it easy to position and to glue pieces in place. Wished it came with a large foam block that was pictured to make it easier to hold the last piece in place.

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Best Internal Protein Skimmer/Filter for Saltwater Aquariums

Great little skimmer! – Super quite, skims the heck out of the gunk in the water. easy to clean, no micro bubbles back into your tank. You will be VERY happy with this skimmer. yes if you need one for your small tank this is the only one to buy!! Love it!!! Just take it apart and clean it good every 3 months and it stays as quite as a mouse!!!! LOVE LOVE LOVE it!!!!

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Best Skimmer Power Waterfall Suspension Oxygen Pump Filter for Fish Tank

A very quiet filter that has adjustable water flow and doesn’t have an overly strong current – This filter is very elegantly built and so far seems to be doing a consistently great job. The filter pieces are pretty easy to pull apart and put back together so cleaning has never been an issue. One thing definitely worth mentioning is the filter has suction tubes that go very deep in smaller tanks. You need a bare minimum 12inch deep tank for the filter to be installed properly.

There are two types of protein skimmers: air-driven and venturi, and two basic methods: concurrent and countercurrent. Concurrent means that air and water flow through the protein skimmer in the same direction, while in countercurrent skimmers they travel in opposite directions. However, some modern skimmers offer other designs, eg a prism-type mixing chamber.

Air-driven protein skimmers sit inside the aquarium and use an air pump to push air and water through the reaction chamber. Venturi protein skimmers use an impellor-driven pump to draw in air and force water through the reaction chamber. Skimming is most effective when the air bubbles are small (but not microscopic) and there is turbulent mixing and a long contact time between the air and water.

Venturi skimmers are more effective than air-driven versions but are larger and more expensive. They come in a range of sizes and styles including models designed to be mounted inside the tank or sump, hang-on-tank, and large free-standing types. Air-driven skimmers are internal, for use in the tank or sump. Sump mounting is popular because protein skimmers, particularly large models, can be obtrusive and unsightly in the tank. However, where a sump is not used, hang-on versions are very popular.

==> Continue reading more relevant fish blogs.

Getting the most out of this filter system:

Choose a suitable model and style to suit your tank volume and set up. The air and water flow through the protein skimmer should be regulated so as to give the most foam. This may require a little trial and error. Airstones in air-driven skimmers should be either wood or sintered glass and must be replaced regularly for optimum performance. Glass airstones have a longer active life than wooden ones. Protein skimmers should be turned off when the aquarium is being medicated as they will strip most medications out of the water.

How Do Magnetic Impellor Driven Pumps Function?


About magnetic impellor driven pumps

Magnetic impellor-driven pumps are completely sealed submersible water pumps. All are water-cooled and should never be run without water. Most need to be fully submerged for proper cooling. Overheating will cause the coils inside the motor to burn out; these cannot be serviced or replaced.

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Best Magnetic Filter Pump

Good and long lasting – The impeller does a great job of breaking up the air bubbles and keeps bait alive for weeks. Had to replace the cover about once every 4 years as the shaft wears the guide seat until it is slightly out of round. 

How it works

The current passing from the mains through the fixed copper coils generates a magnetic field. This causes the magnetic impellor (which is separated from the coils by a layer of plastic and held in place by a shaft) to rotate. The fan attached to the impellor also rotates and forces water out of the outlet, sucking water in the intake as it does so.

The impellor & shaft

The impellor consists of a magnet and fan. The fan should be firmly attatched to the magnet, but note that some fans are designed so that they can turn a short way independently of the magnet. This is to reduce the stress on the fan when the impellor starts or stops spinning. Impellors wll generally last longest if the pump is run continuously, stopping and starting cause the greatest wear. The fan can be broken however if foreign matter in sucked into the intake and causes the fan to jam while the impellor still spins. Impellors are replaceable, but usually only as a whole; fans and magnets are not available separately in most cases.

The role of the shaft is to hold the impeller in place so that it spins on its axis rather than moving laterally. There are two types of shafts. Set shafts are permanently affixed to the motor. These are commonly made of stainless steel. Removable shafts (as shown right) are not fixed but are held firmly in place, usually by snug-fitting rubber stoppers. Removable shafts may be ceramic or stainless steel. Steel shafts will eventually wear, although set shafts generally wear less than removable shafts. Removable shafts can be replaced, whereas set shafts cannot. If buying a pump with a set shaft, look for one with a thick steel shaft, since this will last longer. Ceramic shafts will not wear and can last indefinitely, but they are more expensive. Also, they must be handled with care, as they can snap if dropped or bent. For marine applications, ceramic is generally best since steel shafts may rust, although some pumps use high-grade stainless steel to prevent this. Always check whether a pump is recommended for marine use.

Servicing your pump

Magnetic impellor driven pumps require very little maintenance. However, you should inspect the impellor and shaft assembly for signs of wear once every few months, or whenever pump performance is suspect. At the same time, clean any accumulated mulm or debris out from the impellor well (the cavity in which the impellor sits), and from water intake and outlets.

Common problems

The most common problems involve the impellor, and are usually easily solved.

Problem: Pump does not run, ie. impellor is not turning

Possible causes & remedies:

  1. Check power supply, make sure filter is plugged in and turned on at the power
  2. Impellor may be jammed: gentle shaking will sometimes start the filter, but the impellor or impellor well may need to be cleaned.
  3. Faulty/worn impellor or broken shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.
  4. Burnt-out motor or broken wiring: these cannot be repaired, you will need to replace the filter.

Problem: Impellor turns but little or no water movement occurs

Possible causes & remedies:

  1. Restriction of water intake strainer or prefilter: clean any debris from the strainer and/or prefilter sponge
  2. Faulty/worn impellor: Check the impellor, ensure the fan is fixed to the impellor (some spin and click, but should only have about a quarter turn free play), replace impellor if needed.
  3. Lift height too high for pump capacity: the higher up the water must be pumped, the greater the decrease in flow rate. Check the maximum head height, this should be at least twice the height to which you wish to pump.
  4. Restriction of flow by outlet hose or attachments: if the pump is attached to a hose make sure it is of adequate diameter as a narrow hose can restrict flow. Clean debris from the hose or other attachments with a flexible brush or pipe cleaner if clogged.

Problem: Pump produces excessive noise

Possible causes & remedies:

  1. Faulty/worn impellor or shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.
  2. Restriction of water intake strainer or prefilter: clean any debris from the strainer and/or prefilter sponge.

Everything You Need To Know About Aquatic Filtration: FAQs on Pumps, Protein Concentration And Dangers (2022)


Are air pumps needed for oxygenation?

Oxygen is of course essential for fish. However, it is not always necessary to have an air pump to provide oxygenation. It is a common misconception that water is oxygenated by the bubbles produced by an air pump. In fact, very little oxygen passes from the bubbles into the water.

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Best Solar Powered Air Pump for Fish

Awesome device– The machine works awesome. The solar cell is the best part of the device. A lot of electricity is saved using this device.

The main site for gas exchange in an aquarium is at the water surface. A larger surface area clearly provides more area for oxygen to enter the water, but how does filtration or aeration help?

Consider a stream or river: it is well known that fast flowing waters are well oxygenated, while still waters are often stagnant. The greater the circulation and surface movement of water in an aquarium, the greater the oxygenation. More oxygen is added when the bubbles from an air pump break the surface than when they rise through an aquarium.

Most filters will provide adequate oxygenation as they circulate the water and cause surface movement. An added air pump will provide even greater oxygenation, and is a good safeguard should the filter ever stop working, but is usually not a necessity.

What is protein skimming?

Protein skimming does not fall into any of the previously defined categories of filtration, but it is a process whereby waste products are removed from the aquarium.

Protein skimming uses fine air bubbles to strip proteinaceous waste products from the water. You may have noticed the white froth that is sometimes formed by waves as they break on the beach. The waves force millions of tiny bubbles into the water and as these rush to the surface, they collect dissolved proteins, and the foam results. The same mechanism, although on a smaller scale, is used by protein skimmers in the aquarium. Air, from an air pump or venturi intake, is forced up through a column of water (the reaction chamber), and the foam is collected at the top.

The process of protein skimming can occur in both fresh and salt water. However, to get protein to foam out of freshwater requires an extremely large reaction chamber and very powerful pumps. Therefore, freshwater protein skimming is not practical for home aquaria.

Protein skimming is however readily achievable in marine aquariums, and is commonly used. Because protein skimming removes nitrogenous wastes before they start to decompose, it reduces the production of ammonia and so takes some of the load off the biological filtration. Secondly, it removes nitrogen without producing nitrate. This is particularly desirable in marine reef tanks, since nitrate is toxic to corals and many invertebrates.

Protein skimming on its own is usually insufficient filtration, but its addition to marine tanks is beneficial, particularly where invertebrates are to be kept.

The dangers of overfeeding

As aquarists we have all at some stage been warned not to overfeed our fish. Why is overfeeding so bad?

Fish food contains various carbohydrates and protein. Uneaten food in the water will be broken down by bacteria in the same way as the fishes waste products. The breakdown of carbohydrates consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide, while the breakdown of protein produces ammonia. The combined effects of oxygen depletion and ammonia can be lethal.

Clearly, with better filtration to remove ammonia and oxygenate the water, the risks of killing your fish by overfeeding are lessened. They are not, however, completely eliminated, so you should still take care.

Saltwater Aquarium Backup


Today I had the most dreaded scenario for any saltwater aquarium… the power went out! This isn’t the first time this has happened and like many aquarists, I  just stick my head in the sand and think it doesn’t happen that often, it’ll be fine. I have literally no backup options for my saltwater aquarium equipment.

With no power, the saltwater aquarium was absolutely still, almost lifeless, the corals were closing up and the fish looking confused. Luckily I have a broken leg and didn’t need to leave home that day, so I had a small bucket and just stirred and turned water over every 15mins, which ensured there was sufficient temporary water movement within the saltwater aquarium. Long story short, the power came on after a total of three hours and everything was fine, but it got me thinking. What if this happens again? what if I’m not home? what kind of saltwater aquarium backup systems are out there?

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Best Super Quiet 2000-Watt Portable Inverter Generator 

Performs above expectations! – The generator works fine…. BUT only after having to add a “High altitude” kit. Just a caution if you are going to operate the gen at an altitude of over 2,000 feet you will need one of two kit’s for proper running. Nothing on the web page about this. The information was in the manual, so the kit has to be ordered separately. The kit can quickly and there is an on line manual for how to install.

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Best APC UPS, 600VA UPS Battery Backup Power Supply

GREAT Product – This is a GREAT Battery Backup if that’s all you need. The ONLY purpose of a backup is to safely shutdown your computer if the Power Goes Out. This USB connected device will do that. Unfortunately that’s ALL it does. If you experience more power sags and brownout than outages. The longer battery life of Big Bro will let most people work right through minor blackouts. Its a very nice unit . If this is all you can afford – Get It!! Its a great device and will protect your SSD from blanking itself if the power suddenly goes out .

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Best Aquarium Backup Rechargeable and Portable Fish Tank Air Pump

Outstanding rechargeable air pump! – The pump is perfect for your needs. It works great; it’s quiet and it runs a long time on battery. You have the confidence of knowing that my fish are well served during an extended power outage. You’ve tested them and both pumps have run at least 10 hours on battery. They can take almost a day to recharge while in use, but that’s just fine. If both pumps continue to work the way they currently do, You’ll probably never use anything else.

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Best Multifunctional Rechargeable Energy Saving Power Quiet Oxygen Pump

Best rechargeable battery air pump you can buy – This rechargeable lithium battery air pump is perfect to have in case the power goes out. You can set it to normal or intermittent. Normal gives you 12-16 hours and intermittent gives you 20-22 hours. It’s easy to set up and can either stick to the side of your tank or sit on top of it. It works in a 100-140 gallon tank. Besides being great for power failures it’s also perfect to move fish or tanks. Everyone should have a couple, especially during hurricane season.

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Best fulhengy Battery Aquarium Air Pump Portable Power Outage Aerator Emergency Oxygen Diffuser

Nice little Rechargeable pump. – Bought as a back up for when the power goes out. Used it once for that purpose. It performed as it should. Pleased with this purchase.

Vortech Battery Backup

If you own a vortech pump like me, this could be the best backup solution for your saltwater aquarium. EcoTech marine offers a battery backup which can provide up to 30 hours of backup power for your vortech pump. The system comes with a trickle charger and will ensure you are ready for any situation.

Buy VorTech MP40W Propeller Pump Backup Battery

A vortech pump on its own can maintain your saltwater aquarium in a power out. It provides plenty of flow and if positioned correctly it will break the surface of the water and aerate. This could effectively be used alongside other backup methods like a generator and will ensure you are not caught off guard. I personally am ordering one of these at the moment for my saltwater aquarium.

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UPS Backup

UPS backup systems are battery-powered and are positioned between the mains power and your saltwater aquarium equipment. UPS backup systems become active when the power goes out, which is a good option if you are on holiday. The problem with UPS systems is that they can drain relatively quickly. To overcome this it is recommended that you only connect saltwater aquarium equipment that is necessary for the livelihood of your fish and corals. Another benefit of UPS backups is that they also provide a constant level of power to your aquarium equipment and nullifies the effect of small power surges that can ruin your equipment. Once again, calculate your load using watts and work out which model will work best for your saltwater aquarium

By only connecting essential equipment to the UPS backup, you will gain considerably longer periods of backup power. Equipment such as your lights and heater draw the most power and in a power out scenario, not having them operating would not greatly harm your saltwater aquarium, unless it was for a relatively long period.

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Inverter generators

By far the best option for long-term power outages is inverter Generators. These run on fuel and therefore they have the ability to run for lengthy periods of time. There are several options available and you will need to work out roughly how many watts your saltwater aquarium equipment will draw when so you can select the correct generator

Essentially an inverter generator will allow you to run your entire saltwater aquarium for as long as you can provide fuel. If you would like to run all of your saltwater aquarium equipment then you will most likely require a 2000 watt inverter. The price difference between a 2000 watt and smaller models is not huge and its worth spending the extra money, you may have some spare load for your beer fridge!

There are plenty of other battery-operated devices such as aerators and pumps that could also be used, however, they should only be considered for small aquariums and as a temporary solution.

So You Want To Start An Aquarium?


Raising and keeping fish can be both fun and easy, but many people give up the hobby in the first few weeks when they have trouble keeping fish alive for extended periods of time. This is often the result of misinformation provided by the store selling the equipment and fish. By following a few simple steps provided in this brochure, you will be able to maintain a healthy tank with fish that thrive and you’ll enjoy the benefits of fishkeeping.

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Best Tetra Aquarium Fish Tank For Home

The Awesome Tank has Hinges on Its Hood!!! – There are plenty of artificial plants in the kit for a start up and adding the background really “fills” it up. Make sure you have a very sturdy base to set this on as it is very heavy with the water and gravel! The plastic plants are nice, and if you want that they’re all the plants you will need. They have no bad edges for a delicate betta. But live plants are a lot better for a tank, and make maintenance a lot easier.

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Best Canister External Filter For Aquarium

Moves a lot of water; Rock-solid construction. – it’s an absolute tank ! very quiet considering how much water passes through it an hour . Very easy to maintain, trays pull out easy for cleaning and swapping media etc, draining is a breeze.

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Best Saltwater Marine LED Light For Fish Tank

Good quality and price. – The timer is very nice with sunrise sunset option, the fixture is slim, and the brightness is exceptional. Even with new bulbs tank become more beautiful. The corals seem to be responding well and the fish look bright and colorful. definitely recommend!!

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Best Hygger Fast Heating Titanium Heater For Aquarium

Best heater on the market!!!! – The digital reading is amazing and super easy to use. Heats quick to what you want your temp set at and has a unique design. Nothing on the market compares. This heater heats 240 gallon tank no problem. Temp stays stable and looks great next to my set up. Thank you for your quality products and dedication and passion you put into all of your products. 

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Best Wood Stand For Home Aquarium

Strong & Looks Good! – This is a decent piece of furniture for the price you are paying. If constructed correctly, it seems pretty sturdy, zero wobble or flexing. Quality is probably equivalent to or slightly better than build-it-yourself Ikea cabinets. It would have been relatively easy for them to design a shelf into it, but it has no shelf as it stands. You do not get any extra hardware, so be careful not to lose any of the screws that come with it.

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Best Balanced Diet Flakes Food For Cichlids

Great price and product – Nice blend. Great size flakes when it arrived. Nice in water holds nice. Fish are fish they eat anything but.. some due pick the red flake only.

So what will you need to get started?

The Basic Equipment

  • Fish tank – glass or acrylic
  • Lighting – how much and what kind of lights
  • Filtration – biological, chemical, and mechanical
  • Water Conditioners – which kind to use
  • Heater – what size do I need
  • Stands – what are the best types to use
  • Food – what types and amounts to feed
  • The best part! Fish – size, numbers, Compatability

Step 1: Setting up the Aquarium

So what is the proper way to set up the aquarium? Do I just add the gravel, water, decorations, and dump the fish into the tank? Setting up the aquarium is often the hardest part of the hobby, and it isn’t that hard. There are a few basic steps to follow before fish can be added to the tank, but aside from that, it is pretty easy. It just requires a little muscle and imagination. Otherwise, patience is the key, especially in the first week or two depending on the size of the tank that is being put together. The outline below will give you a good reference to follow in putting together that perfect tank.

Cleaning the equipment

All of the equipment must be thoroughly cleaned before any water is added. This includes washing the tank, gravel, filter, heater, and any decorations that are to be placed in the tank. To clean the tank and filter, fill the tank with a diluted solution of bleach water. Let it soak for a minimum of 1 hour, then remove the bleach water and rinse the tank and heater until the smell of bleach is no longer present. The decorations can be boiled for approximately 20 minutes to sterilize them prior to introduction into the tank. Gravel can be added to a pail and water runs over it until it clears. Swirl the gravel during this process to remove any dirt particles or debris.

Stand and the weight of water

If you are choosing to place the tank on a stand, then the proper stand to hold the tank is extremely important! Water weighs about 10 pounds per gallon. So a standard ten-gallon tank would weigh about 100 pounds! If the stand isn’t capable of holding the tank up, then VERY bad accidents can occur. Custom-made or prefabricated stands can be found at a number of pet stores. Be certain that they are designed to withstand the stress of a fully set up tank.

Decorations for your new tank

This is where you can let your imagination run wild. Whether you want a tank that mimics the fish’s natural surroundings or a tank with castles, colorful gravel, or plastic plants to let your fish play in, personal taste dictates the way your tank will be set up. Prior to adding any of these items to the tank, the decorations must first be sterilized to prevent nasties from being introduced into the tank that might harm your fish. Sterilization can be accomplished by soaking artificial decorations in a diluted bleach solution or boiling durable items for 10 to 20 minutes. Taking these precautionary measures will ensure the health of your fish.

Water treatments

By this time, you have found a place for the tank and stand, cleaned the gravel and added it to the tank, and sterilized the decorations, and placed them where you would like them in the tank. So all there is left to do is add the water. City water naturally contains chlorine that is harmful to both the fish and the important bacteria (to be discussed below) essential for the tank. Therefore, various chemical additives can be purchased and added to the water to neutralize these harmful compounds. Products such as Amquel or Novaque (sold in many pet stores) can be added to the water to treat it prior to addition to the tank. Once the water is added, slowly pour the water into a large bowl placed on the bottom of the tank. This will disperse the water into the tank without disturbing your carefully placed decorations.

Lighting

Most lights provided with the tanks are fluorescent lamps. Although incandescent bulbs (ones most often found in the tabletop lamps) can sometimes be found with purchased tanks, these lights are not ideal because of the amount of heat generated by the bulbs. In addition, the lights are poor for anyone wanting to grow live plants in their tanks. Therefore, fluorescent lighting is recommended for low heat, lighting capacity, and ease of use. Generally, rules of lighting are 1.0 – 1.5 watts/gallon for fish-only tanks and 2.0 – 4.0 watts/gallon for tanks with live plants.

Step 2: “Cycling” The most important part of setting up the aquarium!

So, what exactly do hobbyists mean by “cycling”? Cycling is a natural process by which beneficial bacteria are able to colonize surfaces of the tank and aid in the breakdown of waste by-products that may be harmful to the fish. Water, aside from containing chlorine, also contains ammonia. Ammonia is very harmful to fish and can lead to the quick demise of your newly purchased pets. The bacteria, which colonized the surfaces of the tank or filter, is capable of breaking down ammonia into nitrogenous waste that is less harmful to the fish. It is the process of allowing the bacteria to colonize surfaces of the tank and filter that is referred to as “cycling”.

So, how do you go about cycling a tank?

There are two methods that can result in the tank being cycled.

  1. The first method uses natural fish waste to aid in the process of cycling. Using hardy fishes, such as danios or goldfish, the natural fish “poop” is broken down into less harmful nitrogenous waste products while the process of cycling occurs.
  2. The second method of cycling is done by adding pure ammonia to the fish tank and letting the colonizing bacteria start the breakdown of the ammonia to other nitrogenous products.

When is the tank cycled?

To ensure that the tank has been cycled, two test kits are needed to test for ammonia and nitrite amounts in the water. In the first phase of cycling, the ammonia levels will peak as shown by the test kits. As the bacteria that break down the ammonia colonize the surfaces, ammonia contents will decrease. The next phase will be an increase in the nitrite amounts in the tank. The levels of nitrite will eventually drop and the process of cycling will be coming to an end. When both ammonia and nitrite levels are undetectable, the cycling is finished.

Step 3: The Best Part! Adding the fish to your tank.

Now the fun part. Once the tank has been set up and the cycling process complete, you can add the fish that you want to the tank. The general rule of thumb for the number of fish per tank is 1 inch of fish per gallon of water. Although this is the general guideline, it is better to keep the fish levels below this number to ensure the health of your fish. Another thing to consider is the compatibility of your fish. Most of the clerks selling the fish will be able to give you an idea of the types of fish that can be placed together in a tank. Other resources are the internet, especially many fish-related websites.

Research the fish before purchasing. When you bring the fish home, float the fish in the bag for about 30 minutes adding small amounts of the tank water at regular intervals. Then open the bag and release the fish into the tank. This will allow time for the fish to acclimate to the temperature of the tank and adjust to the water conditions. Once the fish adjust to the tank, you can enjoy this hobby. Periodic water changes and good food will ensure the health of your fish and ensure the enjoyment of the hobby.

How To Choose The Best Amazon Aquarium Undergravel Filters?


Undergravel filters are a system that is not as popular now as in the past. With the improved design and lower price of modern canister filters, these are usually used instead of undergravels.


Undergravel filters are designed to utilise the nitrifying bacteria that exist naturally in the gravel of an aquarium. In order to do this, well-oxygenated water from the aquarium must be circulated through the gravel. This is achieved by having an undergravel plate with uplifts that is placed on the base of the aquarium and then covered by the gravel. This creates a water space underneath the gravel so that water can circulate. The uplift tubes, usually positioned in the corner or corners of the tank, are where water is pulled upwards by a powerhead (impellor driven pump) or airstone and air pump, forcing water to move down through the gravel.

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Best Premium Undergravel Filter

Well designed and easy to assemble – Like this filter although it is a two plate system. The plates are sturdy but they could be a little larger. They leave a little more space around the sides, and in between the plates. You like the raised ribs better than the flat plates because they work well for salt and fresh water. The up flow tubes could be a little longer. They are too short for a taller tank.

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Best Aquarium Fish Tank Undergravel Plastic Filter Board Air Tube 28pcs Black

Good product for a smaller aquarium – Pieces fit together very easily and their small size allows for customizing the filter grid layout for irregularly sized tanks. The plates are 15/32″ thick, so they hide nicely at the bottom of a small tank. The flow tube is easily adjustable, but does not slip. The air hose tubing for the top of the diffuser is pliable and usable (not the hard and short-lived stuff that some vendors provide).

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Best Penn Plax Premium Under Gravel Filter System For Fish Tanks & Aquariums

UG filters are great Biological filters. – It is The strongest filters because they work slowly using natural bacteria and aquarium gravel to filter and foster the Nitrogen Cycle. To enhance their water flow abilities, many people add power heads to them or turn them into reverse flow power filters. Many hundreds of thousands of these UG filters have been used since the 1950s and they work great provided you understand what they are and how to use them. The only ones that are dangerous are those being used wrong or not being maintained properly. Just like any other filter, if left uncleaned or uncared for too long, it too can become a detriment. UG filters if used correctly utilize the natural way of filtering without chemicals or artificial materials and therefore are the poor-mans filter as they require only inexpensive, infrequently replaced parts.

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Best Under gravel Filtration For Fish Tank Air Pump

Awesome small undergravel filter – Trying underwater filter. Added flat sponge underneath to promote healthy bacteria for best water conditions & keep down algae . It really a great idea to use in your tank , love it. Great under gravel filter, for vintage small glass aquarium

Since the gravel provides a very large surface area for nitrifying bacteria undergravel filters can be efficient biological filters. Their efficiency depends on the type and amount of gravel and on the water flow through the gravel. Using an airpump and airstone is usually not effective as the water flow is not great enough to either turn over the water volume at the required rate, or to support sufficient numbers of nitrifying bacteria (remembering that these also need good water flow to provide them with oxygen). Powerheads are available in a range of sizes, a model with suitable turnover should be used for the size of tank.

The size of gravel used is important; too fine a gravel may impede water flow, or may fall through the undergravel plate, too coarse a gravel will not support enough bacteria. A grain size of 2-3mm is ideal. Generally aquarium gravels are no finer than this, but many (eg pebbles) are coarser. The layer of gravel should be at least 4-5 cm thick in order to provide sufficient filtration.

The biological filtration ability of undergravel filters will be impaired if they become clogged with organic wastes, and they do not remove solid waste very efficiently. An additional mechanical filter will be beneficial in tanks which have a high load of solid organic waste. Regular vacuuming of the gravel is important to remove any organic matter which is trapped in the gravel bed.

If water flow through the gravel is stopped for periods of more than a few hours (eg in the event of a power failure) the gravel may become anoxic due to the consumption of oxygen by heterotrophic bacteria and the nitrifying bacteria will be killed off. In the worst case, toxic hydrogen sulphide can start to form in the gravel. This is more likely if the gravel contains a lot of organic waste, so it is vitally important to keep the gravel bed as clean as possible. It is a good idea to do a water change and vacuum the gravel after a power outage to ensure the gravel is not anoxic.

Undergravel filters do not provide any easy method of incorporating extra mechanical filtration or chemical filtration. If these are required the use of an additional filter is recommended. Despite the common misconception, many plants will grow well in tanks equipped with undergravel filters. However, gravel fertilizers such as laterite cannot be used.

Undergravel filters may not be effective in tanks where digging fish are likely to uncover the plate, as the filter only works when the water is passing through the gravel. Using a thicker layer and/or slighly coarser gravel can help, or a grid or porous mat can be placed a few centimetres above the undergravel plate to prevent the fish from digging past this level.

Undergravel filters can provide adequate biological filtration for marine aquaria, however, they do have some drawbacks. The number one problem is disease. In a tank with undergravel filtration it is impossible to eliminate whitespot and velvet, even if ultraviolet sterilization is used, as cysts can persist in the gravel for many months.

Some sources recommend placing filter matting over the undergravel plate to prevent gravel falling through. This is usually not necessary. A small amount of gravel under the plate will not affect the filter, it is only important that water is able to move freely under the plate.

In “reverse flow” undergravel filters water is pumped down the uplifts by a powerhead and forced upwards through the gravel. This prevents organic matter from collecting in the gravel, but instead it collects under the plate where it is difficult to remove! If the water is pumped through the gravel after being pre-filtered (eg from the outlet of a canister filter containing mechanical filter media) then the undergravel can provide good additional biological filtration. Using reverse flow undergravel filtration without a mechanical pre-filter is not recommended.

Undergravel filters are best suited to medium sized and larger tanks. Small tanks do not generally have enough gravel area to make undergravel filtration worthwhile.

Getting the most out of this filter system:

  • Choose an undergravel plate that covers most of the base of the aquarium and team it with a thick layer of fine gravel and a suitable powerhead (Remember that good filtration requires turning your tank volume over three times an hour, more filtration may be needed if you have more or larger fish, or for marine fish).
  • Vacuum your gravel regularly to remove organic wastes.
  • Clean around the impellor of the powerhead every 2-3 months to ensure it runs smoothly, and replace the impellor if necessary.

Troubleshooting powerheads on undergravels:

Problem: Filter does not run, ie. impellor is not turning


Possible causes & remedies:
1. Check power supply, make sure filter is plugged in and turned on at the power
2. Impellor may be jammed: gentle shaking will sometimes start the filter, but the impellor or impellor well may need to be cleaned.
3. Faulty/worn impellor or broken shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.
4. Burnt-out motor or broken wiring: these cannot be repaired, you will need to replace the filter.

Problem: Impellor turns but little or no water movement occurs


Possible causes & remedies:
1. Restriction of water intake strainer or prefilter: Perform gravel clean
2. Faulty/worn impellor: Check the impellor, ensure the fan is fixed to the impellor (some spin and click, but should only have about a quarter turn free play), replace impellor if needed.
3. Lift height too high for pump capacity: the higher up the water must be pumped, the greater the decrease in flow rate. Check the maximum head height, this should be at least twice the height to which you wish to pump.
4. Restriction of flow by outlet hose or attachments: if the pump is attached to a hose make sure it is of adequate diameter as narrow hose can resrict flow. Clean debris from the hose or other attachments with a flexible brush or pipe cleaner if clogged.

Problem: Filter produces excessive noise


Possible causes & remedies:
1. Faulty/worn impellor or shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.
2. Restriction of water intake strainer or prefilter: Perform a gravel clean.

How To Choose The Best Amazon Aquarium Overflow Power Filters? 2022


Overflow powerfilters are one of the most popular filters for small to medium sized aquaria, especially for seahorses and small tropical or coldwater fish.

Overflow filters have a filter box which sits outside the aquarium. Water is drawn into the filter box via an inlet tube by an impellor driven pump, and returns to the aquarium in a wider stream, usually directed across the water surface. Most overflow filters come with replaceable cartridges, and often have room in the filter box for additional filter media. The replaceable cartridges are usually designed for mechanical and some biological filtration, some also contain carbon.

Some overflow filters also come with a means of providing biological filtration. However, any overflow filter that has adequate space in the filter box can be turned into a quite efficient biological filter with the addition of suitable media. Suitable biological filter media will have a large surface area (without restricting water flow) and should not need to be replaced.

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Best Whisper IQ Power Filter for Aquariums

Quiet and reliable function, moves a lot of water. – Really like the adjustable flow, better than the aquaclear adjustment. Also like the water return pushes on the surface instead of the waterfall effect of the aquaclear. Super quiet, self priming, no fear of pushing the basket out like the aquaclear, especially with loose polyfil. Highly recommend

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Best Aqueon QuietFlow LED PRO Aquarium Power Filter

Great for big and small! – It seems to keep my tank clean and clear with two turtles in a 40 gallon tank. It’s very noisy though and unless you fill the water to the brim, it’s going to get annoying . We have had the filter in the tank for several months now and it continues to function as well as the day we first put it in.

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Best Tetra Whisper EX Silent Multi-Stage Power Filter for Aquariums

Amazing for the price! – It has a quiet, steady hum, and it sits sturdily in place on the back. The suction is good and the flow is amazing, but will be far too much for most bettas. As some others have said, definitely make sure that the suction cage tube is snug; if the tube comes loose, your fish are exposed to the open pipe leading into the filter’s motor.

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Best Aqueon QuietFlow LED PRO Aquarium Power Filter 10

Great for smaller tank. – So far this is a great little filter. It sits on the outside of the tank so doesn’t consume alot of space inside leaving more room for your fish. There is a hum to it however. It is not silent but not disturbing…for us anyhow. The price was comparable to others but again not “Quiet” The water is clear and our new fish seem happy.

Where an overflow filter has space, extra filter media may be added to provide additional mechanical or chemical filtration. Sponge can be used where extra mechanical filtration is needed, and will also provide a degree of biological filtration. Carbon, zeolite or resins can be added where chemical filtration is desired.

Overflow filters are generally suitable for small to medium sized tanks. Smaller models may not have the space for extra filtration media, and are equivalent in their performance to an internal power filter. However, overflow filters do have some advantages over the internal type. Firstly, the bulk of the filter sits outside the tank, which can be more aesthetically pleasing, and leaves more room in the tank for fish and ornaments. In very small tanks they can be used to provide filtration without taking up too much space or causing excessive water turbulanece. They are great for seahorses and for planted tanks, as the gentle flow of water provides good filtration without excessive current. They also work very well with tropical community fish and small to medium sized coldwater fish. However, in very long tanks, or where large messy fish are kept, they may struggle to keep the water very clean.

The disadvantage of some models is the relatively high cost of the replacement filter cartridges, which must be changed every few months. Some models allow the use of sponge or poly pad instead of replaceable cartridges, and this will reduce the ongoing costs. Others use longer-lasting sponge pads, which also keeps costs down and improves biological filtration.

Getting the most out of this filter system:

Choose a suitable model for the size of your tank and number of fish (Remember that good filtration requires turning your tank volume over three times an hour, more filtration may be needed if you have more or larger fish). Take into account the room available for extra filter media, and, if cost is an issue, the price of replacement cartridges and their expected lifespan. If possible, use extra filter media to suit the needs of your aquarium.

Clean the filter cartridges (or substitutes) regularly. If you are relying on these for biological filtration, rinse them gently in water from the aquarium, if you are using extra biological filter media the cartridges can be cleaned with cold tap water, but no not scrub them or they will wear out more quickly. Replace the cartridges (or substitute) and any chemical filtration media as needed. If organic matter collects in your biological filtration media, rinse this gently in water from the aquarium, do not throw it out. Replacement cartridges can be seeded with nitrifying bacteria, if needed, by placing them in the aquarium or filter box for a few weeks before they are needed or by washing them together with the old cartridges in some water from the aquarium. If your overflow filter uses two or more cartridges these can be replaced one at a time rather than all at once.

Clean around the impellor every 2-3 months to ensure it runs smoothly, and replace the impellor if necessary.

Troubleshooting:

Problem: Filter does not run, ie. impellor is not turning

Possible causes & remedies:

1. Check power supply, make sure filter is plugged in and turned on at the power
2. Impellor may be jammed: gentle shaking will sometimes start the filter, but the impellor or impellor well may need to be cleaned.
3. Faulty/worn impellor or broken shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.
4. Burnt-out motor or broken wiring: these cannot be repaired, you will need to replace the filter.

Problem: Impellor turns but little or no water movement occurs

Possible causes & remedies:

1. Clogged filter media may be restricting water flow: rinse media in aquarium water, replace if needed
2. Restriction of water intake strainer or tube: clean any debris from the strainer, rinse out tube or clean with a flexible brush
3. Air blocks in intake: pour more water into the back of the filter, jiggle the intake tube
4. Faulty/worn impellor: Check the impellor, ensure the fan is fixed to the impellor (some spin and click, but should only have about a quarter turn free play), replace impellor if needed.

Problem: Filter produces excessive noise

Possible causes & remedies:

1. Air in intake tube: this is normal when the filter is restarted, but if noise perists, try jiggling the intake tube, stopping and restarting, or pouring more water into the back of the filter.
2. Faulty/worn impellor or shaft: check the condition of the impellor and shaft and replace if needed.
3. Loose intake tube: make sure the intake tube is properly seated.
4. Running water noise caused by water falling back into the tank: raise aquarium water level.

Problem: Filter is running properly, but the aquarium does not stay clean

Possible causes & remedies:

1. Old or clogged media: Rinse the cartridge(s) in water from the aquarium, replace if needed.
2. Brand new media not seeded with bacteria, media cleaned of good bacteria: When the filter is brand new, good bacteria will not be present and the filter will not work as well. Good bacteria help to break down wastes and to trap fine particles. If you clean the media with chlorinated tap water or detergents, or if the media is allowed to dry out, or is deprived of oxygen this will kill off the good bacteria and lead to decreased filter performance. You can add cultures of good bacteria to help these establish (or re-establish) in the filter.
3. Not enough filtration for tank load. If the filter is not an appropriate model for the tank size, or if the tank is overcrowded or stocked with very messy species, the filtration may not be adequate, even if the filter is running properly. Increase frequency of maintenance, reduce the load on the tank, or upgrade filtration.

Problem: Water leaks from around the motor

Possible causes & remedies:

1. Worn or improperly sealed O-rings: check condition of o-rings, lubricate or replace if worn
3. Cracked filter body or connections: Replace the damaged components (if available) otherwise, a new filter will be needed

How To Keep Marine Fish? – Saltwater Tank Setup & Care For Beginners


People in general, think that keeping marine fish is a difficult task. In some cases, this may be true, because saltwater fish needs a bit more time, work, and equipment in comparison to freshwater fish.

But freshwater fish also needs the same sort of attention and care, especially, if one wants to breed them or keep delicate fish. On the other hand, there are several marine fish species that are easier to handle once you are able to understand the correct way of maintaining the saltwater aquarium and establishing a stable environment.

Are you are a beginner looking for a small marine fish aquarium to kick start? ==> Buying a small saltwater tank setup kit like the options below can save you a lot of time and avoid mistakes.

The Basic Parameters

Marine fish are more sensitive to variations in their surroundings. The basic parameters for a marine fish tank are pH, salinity, nitrate, and temperature. At the time of the cycling process, nitrate and ammonia can be a problem. These elements are the same as is in the freshwater tanks, only the degree of intensity differs largely.

For keeping marine fish one should be vigilant towards the pH of the water, and it should not fluctuate more than 0.2 each day. Most of the marine life likes pH ranging in-between 8.0 to 8.4. So, it should never drop below 8.0. Other critical parameters such as nitrites, salinity, and temperature, should be around 20 ppm, 1.022, and between 75F to 80F respectively.

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Great price, great kit, no real complaints. – There is a lot of controversies right now with people trying to figure out what is the best test kits for saltwater aquariums. After watching a ton of YouTube videos with everybody keeps saying you gotta buy these or those expensive test kits to get an accurate measure… I am just not convinced. I had been using this kit for over a decade now, I’ll just stick with my API test kits as they work great!

The Basic Components

The basic components for keeping marine fish are synthetic sea salts, filters, lighting, decorations, and test kits. One of the most important items for a saltwater aquarium is the size of the tank, the bigger the better. Larger tanks provide more stability and room for mistakes to be rectified; anyway, tanks should never be less than 20 gallons.

Usually, fish enjoy long, wide tanks; the greater surface area assists in better gas exchange. Another thing that must be kept in the mind is that the tank should never be overcrowded; saltwater livestock should be much lower than the freshwater fish tank. And always use a good substrate such as crushed coral, marine sand, or dolomite.

I use these gadgets for my living room feature saltwater tank.

Make sure to check out tips from other users

My go-to aquarium marine salt – This is a 3 lbs box so it’ll last you forever! Remember to put the box in a gallon zip lock after you open it to protect it from moisture. This box actually has individual bags, so if one bag got wet, it will only affect that bag, the rest of the salt is safe.

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These are awesome Aquarium filters – A canister or in-tank filter is ten times more work and messy. These filters are far superior to anything except canister systems BUT in some ways, better than canister filters due to ease of maintenance.

Check more before/after photos!

Huge difference! – Even through glass tops, the lighting at half depth is more than sufficient to grow zoanthid (food by light) corals. The fact that the lighting can be adjusted almost infinity to adjust for unique tank needs (coral species) is also a major plus. The sunrise and sunset are very nice features. Especially when adding fish to avoid light shock. I have live rock in my system and measured the intensity using a LUX meter at various depths.

For the cost of replacement bulbs (for those that don’t know, metal halide bulbs should be replaced yearly as they lose spectrum with use), I was able to buy 2 of these LED bars. 

For fish tank decoration, you should start with a design theme, click the images below to see more inspiration

Setting Up  

The first step for keeping marine fish is setting up a tank in the appropriate place and position. Make sure that the stand is equal from all directions; you can usually do this with Styrofoam under the tank. Next, install the filtration, either inside the tank or outside, according to the type of filter. Add substrate after rinsing it with plain water and then arrange the decorations.

Now the tank is ready for adding saltwater, this can be done in a few ways either ready mix the synthetic sea salt with reverse osmosis water or from a purifying unit in the tank or containers but it is advisable to place a plate on the substrate before pouring water into it. Then let the tank become stable for about two days and keep testing until the test shows positive readings, before adding livestock.

Aquarium Filtration      

Fish kept in the tank are confined to a very small amount of water and so contaminants such as scraps of uneaten food or ammonia released from fish’s gills, feces raise the toxic level of the water very soon. Keeping marine fish in such a condition is harmful to the proper development of the fish.

Regular change of water can help to contain contamination but may be impractical due to the size and frequency of water changes required. The best way of tackling this problem is by installing the best aquarium filtration you can afford be it under gravel filtration (UGF) or wet/dry filter.

Selecting a Saltwater Fish      

Keeping marine fish is usually more expensive than freshwater fish, so it is very important to get them home alive and maintain their longevity.

Never purchase a sick fish, always look for a healthy and vivacious fish in the store, and check, if any irregular patches, spots, or wounds on the body. Torn fins are not a problem, they will heal up soon, but other symptoms may kill the fish or even infect other fish of the aquarium.

General Notes

Experienced aquarists suggest that one should always keep a quarantine tank, particularly for saltwater fish. Sick fish needs isolated treatment, because medications or copper etc. may contaminate the fish tank which could be detrimental to the health of other fish.

Remember source water is also necessary for saltwater tanks. Tap water contains chlorinates and chlorine which has harmful effects on marine fish; it also helps in the massive growth of algae. Keeping marine fish needs some extra precautions, but this helps to keep the tank full of lively inhabitants.

Is Copper Sulphate Safe For Fish Treatment?


Are you looking for Some Cool Colorful Plants for your Aquarium?

Copper Sulfate, Is it safe?

Many people have had a bad experience with, or are afraid to use Copper Sulfate on their fish because they have been improperly informed on the mixing, dosing, and usage of this product.

What Copper does to aquarium?

Copper Sulfate is pretty much an all-around treatment. It is an Algaecide, meaning that it kills Algae, it is Anti-Bacterial, Anti-Fungal, works on external Protozoa such as Ich, and works on Oodinium, Sliminess of the skin, and kills certain parasites such as Cryptocaryon irritans (Saltwater Ich) and Crustacea (Argulus). It also works as a great preventative treatment for most all fish, freshwater, or saltwater. We used to use it on Gill Flukes years ago, but now, the Gill Flukes have become resistant to this treatment.

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Do Not Use with KOI or Goldfish – Great for large pond or deck that has been overgrown with algae.

This is for large bodies of water, not for pools, decorative ponds, fish tanks, water features. It is better to start with less, you can always add more.

How to mix up a Copper Solution properly:

Stock solution= 21 grams of Copper Sulfate + 21 grams of Citric Acid Crystals to 1 pint of distilled water. Shake well. Use 1 drop per gallon of aquarium water= .15ppm. Why use Citric Acid with Copper? Simple, it sequesters the solution to make it stable. Copper does not readily dissolve in water. The Citric Acid helps it to dissolve completely and prevent Copper levels from bouncing around.

How high can I run Copper?

Safe levels are .15ppm to .20ppm. Any higher may burn the fish and leave them with red sores on their sides. It is very important to use a Copper test kit when medicating with this product.

How do I remove Copper?

A common misconception about Copper is that it can be removed from the water with activated charcoal. It can only be removed by either doing water changes or by using E.D.T.A. (Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acidic Acid) to chelate it out of the water. Remember folks, there is no such thing as a “Chelated Copper Solution”, as “Chelated” means “Inactivated”. The proper terminology would be “Sequestered Copper Solution”.

Warnings before using Copper:

Although Copper is safe at the correct parts per million, there are certain things that Copper cannot be used on: Saltwater Sharks, Invertebrates, and for sure… reef tanks.

Also, be careful if using Copper to kill algae. When you dose the tank, the Copper readings will disappear, because the algae will suck it all up. Then the algae die and release all of the Copper back into the water.

Copper is a heavy metal ion and is considered a “Poison”. Care should be used when handling this product.

Depends on your proposes of using copper sulphate, you can also check out these popular alternatives.

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Complete and concentrated conditioner for both freshwater and saltwater fish tanks, working hard to remove chlorine and chloramine.

– Just a few drops will clear up an entire tank. It doesn’t take much to make a difference.
– This product will keep your fish and plants safe from harmful chemicals.
– Even shrimp, which are more sensitive to chemicals than fish are safe with this formula.
– This product works instantly.
– Could also be used in small fish ponds.

**I do recommend that you change the water in your tank and use this water primer during each change at least every 4-5 weeks.
** Also recommended that you try to keep away from small children.

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Please be sure to read the directions & be careful with the calculation! – Great for snail problems. However don’t use this if you have shrimp, as they will also die along with the snails.

Great also for treating sick fish (having Marine velvet or Ich that is). This to me is one of the best ways to aggressively attack fish parasites before is too late. Quarantine the fish then immediately put this product in the tank and you’ll see the fish coming back to life in a matter of days.

More useful aquarium tips @ TheAquariumExchange.com

All The Best Amazon Aquarium Gift Deals For Saltwater And Fresh Water Aquatic Animals 2022


We have carefully selected for you some of the best Amazon Aquarium products and accessories for both Saltwater and fresh water tanks that are trending now, check out this cool looking tank, it would look great any room.

We have created a list of the best saltwater and freshwater aquatic products for the best price below for you to choose from. Relax and enjoy your experience with us on our site, we strive to bring you the best information and Aquarium Products whether it be reverse osmosis pumps trickle filters or keeping algae under control in your tank we hope to provide you with all the information you need for you Aquariums health and the essential accessories that you need for your Aquarium to look cool and relaxing to watch.

Don’t forget to see other products on amazon.com

Check out more of our recommended products and learn more about the most efficient shopping ways here!

Jelly Fish Lamp

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Best Color Changing Lamp

Mesmerizing – I Bought it for my 3-month-old because he gets bored easily and loves things that light up. After going to an aquarium, he loves glow fish, but without time to maintain real fish, so found this instead! He is mesmerized by it and coos at it.

Colorful Tank LED Lighting Strips

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Best Colorful Tank Lighting

Soft and natural –  It’s basically an LED strip inside a glass tube capped off with rubber. It’s design is very similar to a submersible heater. The instructions are pretty easy and submersible part of the power cord is pretty lengthy. The lights themselves are bright and has nice colors. It has a much more natural look or that look when you go to a real aquarium

Sponge Bob Fish House

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Best Tank Decor Fish Toy

Fun for the fishes –  My Betta fish really likes it. He likes to hide in there. Sometimes he’ll sit in one of the eye holes and just watch what is going on in my office Aquarium.

World Underwater Atlas For Avid Divers

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A Great Book For Diving Beginners

Beautiful and detailed –  It goes into great geographical detail about many areas. Don’t expect an overview. Each chapter contains an exceptional level of detail describing multiple “sites within sites”. Some chapters could be sold individually as stand alone books. Very well written and very well photographed.

Fish Tank For Kids

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A Best Fish Tank Night Light For Kids

Great alternative – This is wonderful, the girls are truly enjoying the fish tank and my little grandson just stares at it. its colorful and lights on in the Aquarium makes for a great night light in their bedroom. Everyone is very happy.

Colorful Bubbling Tank

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The Best Colorful Bubbling Tank

Sleek and compact –  If you’re looking for more than a basic Aquarium tank for your Beta fish, etc. Then this is a great choice. The Aquarium filter works very well. The water is lasting about 3x longer without need to replace it with fresh water. The pump is also extremely quiet.

Automatic Electric Fish Feeder

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Best Automatic Electric Fish Feeder For When You Are Away

Easy Feed –  Highly adjustable portion control with up to 3x feeds per day. Usually use larger wafer but doesn’t fit. Pellets work nice, feed and dump smoothly. Easy to set up dry dumps to test portions and cycles before putting on aquarium for automatic feeding. Probably get two weeks from single fill. 

Water Stabilizer

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Best Stabilizer To Prevent New Tank Syndrome

Superb bio quality –  Ammonia and Nitrite levels are always at 0ppm. The beneficial bacteria in Seachem Stability are very hardy and are able to adapt to a large range of different environments and conditions. I do huge 50% water changes during routine maintenance and the bacteria hold up quite well in my bio wheels with new water keeping toxic ammonia and nitrite at zero.

Versatile Water Pump

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Best Water Pump For All Water Types

Superb filter system for all Aquarium tanks –  You don’t have to shut it down. Pull the cartridge, rinse the new one with distilled water, slowly replace it back in the formed slots. They’re pretty quiet but you get the “bubbling noise” when your water level drops below a certain point. Keeping the water level up is a good thing and remember, those bio wheels add oxygen to the water.

Explore our aquarium blogs to get inspired by what else to buy for Black Friday!

What is Amazon Black Friday?

Amazon Black Friday is a massive sales week in November just before Thanksgiving and Christmas with the best deals ever for you. Prices are usually lower, but most deals come and go at lightning speed! Offers may be gone before you know it so be prepared and regularly check-in.  

When Does Amazon Black Friday Start?

Black Friday falls on November 26, but new deals will be dropping early since November, so get your tablets ready to catch these door buster deals!

How Does Amazon Black Friday Work?

With Deal of the Day, Amazon displays all the biggest discounts of the day and Lightning Deals for selected items, which bargains are refreshed, added, or removed as often as every five minutes during the sales week. Start smart shopping for your aquarium friends now or you will surely miss the chance for these superb deals!

How to take advantage of these incredible deals?

The best way is to become a Prime Member which gives you early access to all Lightning Deals and free shipping benefits. If you are new to Amazon, simply sign up for a free trial of Prime. The trial lasts for one month and if you a student, you will be free on a 6-month Prime Student account. Get the Amazon app to save up more, and watch the deals with a blue Black Friday badge to easily spot out the greatest discounts!

Dont forget to check out the following blogs for the best advice on choosing products to keep your tanks in the best shape.

Get your tablets ready, and routinely check in to secure the best products of the best quality for your fishy friends, for Amazon will be updating discount items constantly! Happy holiday shopping!

Aquarium Fish and Aquarium Heating Tips For Aquarians (FAQs 2022)


Interesting Facts About Aquarium Fish And Aquarium Heating

  1. Though fish are mute they are extremely sensitive towards the light, smells, touches, sounds, and tastes. Taste buds cover their entire body.
  2. Fish are extra-sensitive towards water temperature. Even 2-3 degrees can be crucial for them and even cause the death of some species.
  3. Never try to heat an aquarium in a natural way by placing it under direct sunlight. It is dangerous for its inhabitants.
  4. In 95% of cases, fish die because of improper feeding and housing conditions.
  5. Fish are not animals, but like all living beings, they can experience stress, pain, and fear.

Why You Need To Put A Heater For Your Aquarium

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Best Aquarium Heating And Cooling Kit

Great temperature controller – This temperature controller gives tons of options, and is a great safety net for a faulty heater. You can set a target value, and a heating or cooling differential/range that tells the controller when to kick on/off heating and cooling units. The adjustable hot/cold alarm feature is cool as well, and fairly loud.

Unlike mammals, fish can’t maintain their body temperature; they are cold-blooded, which means that their bodies do not produce heat. That’s why fish are entirely dependent on the environmental temperature. Some species feel good at room temperature, while others (especially tropical fish) need warmer water. But even if your fish live at room temperature, you need to keep in mind that the temperature in your room is not constant. It tends to fluctuate throughout the year and even throughout the day. So, a fish aquarium heater is a must-have anyway.

Different Types Of Aquarium Heaters

Though all heaters perform one and the same task regulating water temperature they can significantly differ in terms of their construction. They are chosen based on the aquarium size, fish species, and personal preferences of a fish owner. Here are the main types of heaters:

  1. Immersion heaters are hanged over the tank’s wall. Their heating element is hidden in a glass tube that is placed into water.
  2. Submersible heaters that are fully placed right in the water. They are safer and more convenient than immersion-type heating devices.
  3. Filters with built-in heaters. Two-in-one devices can be convenient but beware that you won’t be able to regulate the temperature, and if a heater goes down, you’ll have to replace the entire unit.
  4. External in-line and in-sump filters. The first one is placed between the sump and the tank, while the second one inside the sump. They are used for larger aquariums and are more expensive than compact devices.

Immersion and submersible heaters are most popular in the market. They are affordable, easy to use and compact. However, submersible heaters are safer and more efficient, so they are more frequently recommended by experienced aquarists.

How To Care Aquarium Heater

Though for the most part aquarium heaters are quite easy to use and don’t require special maintenance, don’t forget that they are electric devices. It means that you need to observe basic safety precautions to prevent possible dangerous situations. Here are some tips for everyone to consider.

  • Choose an aquarium heater size suitable for the size of your aquarium tank. This information is usually provided in the list of the product’s specifications.
  • Read a user manual before switching on a heater. It helps to reduce risks. For example, from the Top Fin aquarium heater instructions, you’ll know how to mountain the device correctly for its maximum efficiency.
  • Keep in mind that even the best saltwater aquarium heater models tend to rust over time in the salted water. If you see the signs of rusting, replace the heater. If water gets inside, it can result in a short circuit.

Also, try to prevent shattering of the aquarium. Though modern heaters are considered shock-resistant, they still can break. Breakage of a heater inside a tank can be very dangerous.

How and Where to Place a Heater

Beginners in the sphere of aquaristics often wonder where to place aquarium heater inside the tank. In fact, there can be several possible variants. An important thing here is to adhere to some principle rules.

Submersible heaters must be covered by water completely. Some models are mounted only vertically, other horizontally, and still others can be mounted in any position. If you use several heaters (in a large tank), place them in the opposite corners of the aquarium in order to let water be heated evenly. If you don’t know what size heater for aquarium is best, read the product’s specifications.

Water Temperature For Different Species

Different types of fish have different demands to water temperature. Moreover, some of them are more sensitive to the temperature fluctuations, while others are more immune to slight changes throughout the day. These factors need to be considered when you are choosing the fish for living in one aquarium.

  • Coldwater Fish

Coldwater fish are considered the least demanding, due to which they are rather popular, especially with the beginners. Well-known examples of coldwater aquarium fish are the goldfish, the coi, and guppy. These fish feel comfortable at the temperature of 65-68 F.

  • Warm-Water or Tropical Fish

Tropical fish can’t live in cold water. The comfortable temperature range for them is 75-80 F, which can’t be maintained by a special aquarium heater. These fish are also more demanding in general, so if you have no or little experience in fish breeding, you’d better begin with coldwater species. Examples of tropical fish are the danios, barbs, angelfish, and others.

Best Aquarium Heater 2022: 7+ Most Reliable Brand For Maintaining Water Temperature with No Trouble


How We Picked Out the Best Models in the Category of Aquarium Heaters?

To choose the most popular and most reliable aquarium heater models of the year we made a deep analysis of this segment of the market. We’ve studied several hundreds of aquarium heater reviews of real customers. It helped us to single out the main pros and cons of every heater and nominate prospective leaders.

The second stage of our research was the real-life testing of the chosen models. For testing, we used two standard aquariums 15 and 30 gallons (without live fish, just with water). One of them was filled with salted water, another with fresh water.

Our goal was to estimate the build quality, design, the accuracy of temperature measuring, the consistency of water temperature, and some other key parameters. As a result, the seven best models were chosen. All of them are efficient and reliable enough, and all of them are highly estimated by real customers.

Best Aquarium Heaters of the Year 2022: a Comparative Chart

 BrandViaAqua 50-Watt HeaterFLUVAL E 300 Watt HeaterNeo-Therm Aquarium Heater – Cobalt AquaticsAqueon Pro Heater Aquarium HeaterEHEIM Jager Aquarium Thermostat HeaterTetra HT Submersible Aquarium HeaterSongjoy Quartz Glass Submersible Aquarium Heater
Type of a heaterSubmersibleSubmersibleSubmersibleSubmersibleSubmersibleSubmersibleSubmersible 
Type of waterFresh or saltedFresh or saltedFresh or saltedFresh or saltedFresh or saltedFresh or saltedFresh or salted
Power (W)503005015020050300
Applicable tank size (gallons)Up to 13Up to 100Up to 12Up to 50Up to 100Up to 10Up to 50
Build qualityGoodExcellentGoodExcellentExcellentMediumGood
Temperature range (F)68-9368-9366-9668-8865-93Non-adjustable: around 7835-93
WarrantyNot specified5 years3 yearsLimited lifetime warranty3 yearsNot specified1 year

Top Aquarium Heater 2022: Our Choice

Here is our list of best aquarium heater models. For every heater, we tried to single out the pros and cons. Read and decide what top-rated aquarium heater is best for you.

ViaAqua 50-Watt Quartz Glass Submersible Heater with Built-In Thermostat

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Best Strong Material Heater

Durable material – I have an aquarium with large turtles, when launching into the water have broken several heaters. Got this product and I was very surprised by the quality and thickness of the glass, even resists the temperature change from cold to hot (moderate) of the water with the heater disconnected.

This is a simple small aquarium heater that is able to maintain a fixed temperature in a 10- 13-gallon tank. It is fully submersible and can be used in both salted and freshwater. But for larger aquariums, this 50-watt aquarium heater can turn out to be too weak.

Pros:

  • adjustable temperature;
  • for salted- or freshwater aquariums;
  • convenient temperature setting;
  • high-quality materials: sturdy plastic and quartz glass.

Cons:

  • the temperature needs to be adjusted manually;
  • sometimes doesn’t cope with the heating of a 13-gallon tank;
  • tends to turn off before the temperature reaches the preset value.

FLUVAL E 300 watt Advanced Electronic Heater

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Best Heater With LED Display

Works well -Digital temperature easy to program using button attached to the cord. Taking heater out of tank or putting hand in water not needed for temperature adjustment.

This powerful 300-watt aquarium heater can maintain the needed constant temperature in a 100-gallon tank. It is equipped with dual sensors for quick and precise temperature measurements. The VueTech Technology indicates an increased risk of overheating with the help of a flashing LED monitor.

Pros:

  • smart and powerful;
  • dual sensors for temperature measurements;
  • a readable LED display;
  • easy to set and use;
  • the heating element is hidden deep inside so that fish can’t contact it.

Cons:

  • it is expensive if compared to most other heaters.

Neo-Therm Aquarium Heater – Cobalt Aquatics

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Best For Maintaining Steady Temperature

Good product, prompt service – Set it and forget it, maintains rock-solid temperature range. Like +- 0.2 degrees per my digital thermometer. Great product, great function, great warranty. 

This heater is notable not only for its design, which is really sleek. It is very handy, easy to set up and use, and efficient. The Neo-Therm heater provides precise temperature measurements and has a function of automatic switching off if there is a risk of overheating.

Pros:

  • a very accurate temperature reading and displaying;
  • the “one touch†system is really handy;
  • two bright indicators the preset temperature and the current temperature;
  • maintains the temperature very well;
  • shatterproof and shockproof.

Cons:

  • must be placed only vertically.

Aqueon Pro Heater Aquarium Heater

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Best For Outdoor Use

Brilliant for the outdoor pond in winter – Most days the water feels warm. I would 100% recommend this heater for outdoor ponds in the winter: it has worked absolutely perfectly for that purpose for me! Works much better than a similar wattage pond deicer and much more economically than a higher wattage pond deicer.

This is another terrific aquarium heater with a thermostat (electronic). It is lightweight and compact but very robust and, as the manufacturer claims, 100% shatterproof and shockproof. It is a fully submersible heater; easy to use and reliable.

  • an exceptional build quality;
  • the accuracy of temp measurements and displaying;
  • electronic thermostat;
  • lifetime warranty from the manufacturer.

Cons:

  • tends to rust over time;
  • sometimes (though rarely) doesn’t maintain the preset temperature. The solution is a more powerful option.

EHEIM Jager Aquarium Thermostat Heater

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Best For Budget

Brilliant for the outdoor pond in winter – fantastic product always high quality and reliability from Eheim, an excellent product for small aquariums, top marks

The EHEIM Aquarium Heater is a great example of a reliable modern medium-priced device. It has a conventional design, sturdy shock-resistant construction, and all the necessary features. The good news is a wide range of watts available from 50 to 300 W.

Pros:

  • easy setting;
  • the proprietary TruTemp system for more precise measurements;
  • a decent build quality, shock-resistance;
  • durable and reliable;
  • it turns off automatically when there’s a risk of overheating.

Cons:

  • it is longer than usual;
  • sometimes doesn’t cope with the claimed tank size.

Tetra HT Submersible Aquarium Heater With Electronic Thermostat

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Best For Beginners

Simple Use and Great Buy – I love these. I have been keeping tropical aquariums for 45 years and temperature control just doesn’t get any easier than this. I just drop them in the tank, give them some time to acclimatize, and plug them in. There is nothing to adjust ever.

The Tetra HT submersible aquarium heater is a fantastic low-budget option. It can seem a bit plain and too small but on the plus side, it is a really cheap aquarium heater, which does its job well, especially in small aquariums. But keep in mind that for a larger tank, you’d better buy a more powerful device.

Pros:

  • very affordable;
  • easy to set up and use;
  • fully submersible;
  • a shatterproof construction;
  • an electronic thermostat.

Cons:

  • not very durable;
  • for smaller tanks only.

Songjoy Quartz Glass Submersible Aquarium Heater For Tropical Fish with Suction Cup 

This 300w aquarium heater suits for heating bigger aquariums up to 50 gallons of water. Beware that other options are also available (from 100 to 500 Watt). The heater is affordable and does its job well.

Pros:

  • fully submersible;
  • fast and accurate heating;
  • a bright indicator;
  • adjustable temperature;
  • can be placed vertically and horizontally
  • one-year warranty.

Cons:

  • suction cups are not perfect;
  • sometimes doesn’t cope with the claimed tank size.

Verdict and Recommendations

We’ve reviewed seven great models of submersible aquarium heaters on our aquarium blog site. Your final choice will depend on your particular needs. For example, the Tetra aquarium heater, as well as the Top Fin aquarium heater, will not fit into a large tank, so you’ll better choose a large aquarium heater like FLUVAL E 300 Watt.

If you are looking for a good 50-gallon aquarium heater, consider Aqueon Pro Heater, which has an excellent build quality and a lifetime warranty from the manufacturer. Finally, if you are looking for the most affordable option for a small tank, try the ViaAqua heater it is cheap but effective, and does its job really well.

Fixing Problems Of Your Aquarium Magnetic Impeller Driven Pumps (2022)


About magnetic impeller driven pumps

Magnetic impellor-driven pumps are completely sealed submersible water pumps. All are water-cooled and should never be run without water. Most need to be fully submerged for proper cooling. Overheating will cause the coils inside the motor to burn out; these cannot be serviced or replaced.

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Best Magnetic Pump

Reliable and long lived – Easy to install and perfect volume flow rate for 30 inch bowl fountain to have even flow over entire rim. Did not require ball valve. Made refinements to flow with electricians putty to control rate of drainage through bottom of bowl

How it works:

The current passing from the mains through the fixed copper coils generates a magnetic field. This causes the magnetic impeller (which is separated from the coils by a layer of plastic and held in place by a shaft) to rotate. The fan attached to the impellor also rotates and forces water out of the outlet, sucking water in the intake as it does so.

The impeller & shaft:

The impellor consists of a magnet and fan. The fan should be firmly attatched to the magnet, but note that some fans are designed so that they can turn a short way independently of the magnet. This is to reduce the stress on the fan when the impellor starts or stops spinning. Impellors wll generally last longest if the pump is run continuously, stopping and starting cause the greatest wear. The fan can be broken however if foreign matter in sucked into the intake and causes the fan to jam while the impellor still spins. Impellors are replaceable, but usually only as a whole; fans and magnets are not available separately in most cases.

The role of the shaft is to hold the impeller in place so that it spins on its axis rather than moving laterally. There are two types of shafts. Set shafts are permanently affixed to the motor. These are commonly made of stainless steel. Removable shafts (as shown right) are not fixed but are held firmly in place, usually by snug-fitting rubber stoppers. Removable shafts may be ceramic or stainless steel. Steel shafts will eventually wear, although set shafts generally wear less than removable shafts. Removable shafts can be replaced, whereas set shafts cannot. If buying a pump with a set shaft, look for one with a thick steel shaft, since this will last longer. Ceramic shafts will not wear and can last indefinitely, but they are more expensive. Also, they must be handled with care, as they can snap if dropped or bent. For marine applications, ceramic is generally best since steel shafts may rust, although some pumps use high-grade stainless steel to prevent this. Always check whether a pump is recommended for marine use.

Servicing your pump

Magnetic impellor driven pumps require very little maintenance. However, you should inspect the impellor and shaft assembly for signs of wear once every few months, or whenever pump performance is suspect. At the same time, clean any accumulated mulm or debris out from the impellor well (the cavity in which the impellor sits), and from water intake and outlets.

Common problems

The most common problems involve the impellor, and are usually easily solved.

Problem: Pump does not run, ie. impellor is not turning

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Check power supply, make sure filter is plugged in and turned on at the power
2. Impellor may be jammed: gentle shaking will sometimes start the filter, but the impellor or impellor well may need to be cleaned.
3. Faulty/worn impellor or broken shaft: check the condition of the impeller and shaft and replace if needed.
4. Burnt-out motor or broken wiring: these cannot be repaired, you will need to replace the filter.

Problem: Impellor turns but little or no water movement occurs

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Restriction of water intake strainer or prefilter: clean any debris from the strainer and/or prefilter sponge
2. Faulty/worn impellor: Check the impellor, ensure the fan is fixed to the impellor (some spin and click, but should only have about a quarter turn free play), replace impellor if needed.
3. Lift height too high for pump capacity: the higher up the water must be pumped, the greater the decrease in flow rate. Check the maximum head height, this should be at least twice the height to which you wish to pump.
4. Restriction of flow by outlet hose or attachments: if the pump is attached to a hose make sure it is of adequate diameter as narrow hose can resrict flow. Clean debris from the hose or other attachments with a flexible brush or pipe cleaner if clogged.

Problem: Pump produces excessive noise

Possible causes & remedies:
1. Faulty/worn impellor or shaft: check the condition of the impeller and shaft and replace if needed.
2. Restriction of water intake strainer or prefilter: clean any debris from the strainer and/or prefilter sponge.

11+ Best Aquarium Accessories & Essential Fish Tank Accessories.


Keep your water safe for your fish, Affordable 6 in one Testing Kit Available Now

More than one way to skin a cat

Well, aquarium keeping is not an exact science, and there is no one single correct way of keeping fish. Through our many years of experience, We’ve found methods and products that work well, and we’ll always recommend them, but certainly, they are not the only option. We believe they may be the best option, the best value, best performance, easiest, most reliable, or whatever, but that’s not to say that other products simply will not work. Be very wary of anyone who tells you how you HAVE to do it, or what you HAVE to have, they may be more concerned with their hip pocket than what really is best for your fish.

Cycle biological supplement

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Best Lighting For Small Spaces

Great light output – Within twenty-four hours The ammonia level dropped, and within three days, it was gone. The nitrates finally started to be readable, but never went above 10 ppm, and the nitrites disappeared as well.

One of the few difficult aspects of aquarium keeping is the start-up period for a new aquarium. A brand new tank and filter are a sterile system, without any of the good bacteria that break down toxic wastes from fish. With patience and care fish losses can usually be avoided, but it is better and easier to simply add those good bacteria from day one!

Cycle adds these good bacteria to speed up the cycling process in new tanks or to boost the numbers of good bacteria in any system. You can add it weekly – it’s impossible to overdose! Or add when it’s needed, such as after medicating, or when the filter media has been cleaned or replaced.

Floating magnet cleaners

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Best For Removing Algae

Pretty and strong – This is quite an effective algae scraper that is attractive to boot. It came with both a steel and a plastic blade so that It could be used on both glass and acrylic tanks. 

Magnet cleaners have always been popular – they are a simple way to remove algae without getting your hands wet. Also great for cleaning in hard-to-reach places, they are gentle on the glass and very easy to use. But now they’re even better – you can get magnet cleaners that float!

That’s right – these incredibly lightweight, but extremely powerful, magnet cleaners will float if you break the magnetism. The floating magnet cleaners have an ergonomic grip and very powerful magnetism for their size. They are also completely sealed and so can be left packed in a corner of the aquarium ready to go whenever they’re needed. Keeping your tank spotless has never been easier!

If you need more guidance, read this step-by-step aquarium cleaning guide!

Rio Hyper-flow pumps

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Best Energy Efficient Pump

Great Pond Pump – These have a different construction to the vanes on the impellers, and they don’t clog as easy and they can really push the water around. 

Rio Hypeflow pumps are the ultimate high-power pump/powerhead. They use a unique vortex impellor design that utilizes a rare earth magnet in conjunction with a titanium shaft and ceramic bushings. This design allows the Rio Hyperflows to offer phenomenal pumping performance in a very compact unit with low power consumption and the longest possible impeller and shaft life.

Titanium shafts are not only corrosion-resistant even in salt water, they are strong and unlikely ceramic shafts, almost impossible to break. All models come with a pre-filter sponge and a range of fittings. Rio Hyperflow pumps come with a 2-year warranty.

Compact fluorescent lighting

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Best Lighting For Small Spaces

Great light output – The light output is stunning for such a small package. The flexible neck is a really nice feature to direct light where it’s needed, and the magnet for attachment really gives creative freedom.

In the past, the only alternative to standard fluorescent lighting was to mortgage one’s nice home and invest in metal halide lighting, and this was viewed as the only option for serious planted tanks and reef aquarium. While metal halide is still the absolute optimum for providing lighting intensity, there is now a very affordable lighting system that offers greater light intensity than standard fluorescent tubes, but with the same advantages of low running cost and low heat production.

Compact fluorescent tubes offer around twice the light intensity per watt when compared with standard fluorescents, so they are extremely efficient. When it is taken into consideration that the tubes also last around twice as long for around the same cost as standard tubes, it can easily be seen that a compact fluorescent unit will cost even less in the long term than standard fluoros.

The initial cost of a compact fluorescent light unit is usually around double that of a similarly sized standard unit, but for that price, you get three to four times as much lighting – and still at a fraction of the cost of metal halides.

Aqua One Canisters

Our most popular range of canister filters offers great performance and features at a very affordable price. It was not too long ago that there were no canisters to be found for less than $500, now there are quite a few, but we believe the Aqua One canisters (formerly badged Via Aquas) represent the best value of all of the lower-priced canisters.

In fact, they may even offer better value for money than some of the more expensive canisters. They are reliable, exceptionally quiet, easy to use, and offer all the major features of units costing twice as much. Plus, unlike some cheaper filters, all spare parts are readily available and inexpensive. All units come ready to go, with media, hoses and fittings included.

The Aquarium Gardener Video

This amazing video features some of the most beautiful aquariums ever created! On the most practical level, it is a comprehensive book in visual form, covering all you need to know in order to set up and maintain a luxurious planted aquarium. It is full of useful tips and straightforward instructions. Even an aquarium novice could understand the concepts, yet, even as an experienced aquarist, I still found there was much I could learn from it. Even after watching a number of times, some new tidbit of information would catch my attention.

The author and narrator, Peter Craig, is highly experienced particularly regarding growing aquarium plants and aquascaping, and shares his knowledge freely. Structured in a step-by-step format, it guides you through an in-depth exploration of the setup of some fascinating aquariums. However, it’s not only a great instructional video, it’s relaxing simply to watch and admire the aquascapes and fish that are featured. A worthwhile investment for both beginners and serious aquarists alike.

HBH Rainbow Colour Flake Food

HBH makes a range of premium quality fish foods for goldfish, tropicals, and marines, including our favorite flake food (well, ok, our fish’s favorite) Rainbow Color. Rainbow Color has the highest level of natural color enhancers (carotenoids) of any available flake food, but it is also highly nutritious.

HBH flake foods don’t just contain a single type of flake dyed in different colors, the different color flakes making up the mix contain different ingredients so you can vary your fish’s diet using a single can! The foods combine flakes with a high protein, a meaty component with vegetable flakes, and all are enriched with ChromaColor for natural color enhancement. 

What’s more, not only are carotenoids great natural color enhancers, but they are also antioxidants that promote fish health. Rainbow Color is suitable for all cold water and tropical fish and is accepted even by finicky feeders. Why not see what your fish think of it?

AZOO colour-enhance pellet food

A recent independent survey of fish foods in Singapore rated AZOO foods an A-grade for nutrition with a score of 97%, much higher than that of some other well-known foods (eg Hikari was rated only a C-grade). We’ve been using the AZOO foods in our showroom for a while now and have been very impressed, why not try some on your fish?

Azoo color enhance pellet is a floating pellet with a very high level of natural color enhancing ingredients including spirulina, carotenoids, and PSB. Also with Glucan for boosted fish health and immunity. Ideal for enhancing the colors of all sorts of tropical fish, especially cichlids. Two pellet sizes: small and medium. Available in 60g, 145g, 430g, 1.05kg

Geoliquid for water plants

Reading the included information in the geoliquid package may make you think it is nothing short of magical and no doubt you’ll be quite skeptical – can it really do all THAT? Well, the language used may be a little prone to hyperbolae, but in our opinion Geoliquid really is magical! It not only removes a huge range of toxins (chlorine, chloramine, organic impurities, metals, and pesticides to name a few) but also clears the water, adds beneficial minerals, and helps biological filtration to work more effectively.

To sum it up, it is the most complete water conditioner available, and it really can do miracles in tanks that have been contaminated. Geoliquid is available in a range of formulations containing different mineral balances to suit the needs of different groups of fish. Geoliquid for water plants is designed for planted aquariums and their inhabitants and contains minerals beneficial to plants.

However, there is one misconception and that is that Geoliquid for water plants takes the place of fertilization. Although it is beneficial for plants it is not specifically a fertilizer, so you may need separate plant food. The main benefit of geoliquid is that it dramatically improves water quality, and that can only be good for the fish AND plants!

Red Sea Prizm Pro Skimmer

The next generation of professional protein skimmers is finally here and they are more compact, quieter, and easier to use than their predecessors! To be honest, we really didn’t believe all the hype about these when they were first mentioned. Seeing them at the tradeshow in October erased much of our doubts, but even then we didn’t realize just how good these really were.

Sure, they were exceptionally quiet and featured a new and very radical design, but it wasn’t until we could get them running on our tanks that we found out what an incredible job they did. Forget free-standing or in sump skimmers!

On our reef tank, the Prizm-pro is so efficient our other skimmer can’t even produce foam! What else do we like about these?

Firstly, they are so easy to use and to adjust. There is minimal assembly required (and good instructions!) and tuning them is so simple.

Then there’s the size – at only 9cm wide and 51cm, they can be hung on the tank or on a sump/trickle filter without the need for costly modified or extra-high cabinets. The patented design firstly creates an optimal air-water mix, then encourages a long contact time with both con- and counter-current contact between the fine bubbles and water flow, producing an amazing amount of foam. (We also like the very large collection cup with a drain to optionally collect foam in an even larger receptacle).

Finally, the design incorporates a bubble-trap so that no bubbles are returned to the tank, and there is room for chemical or other filter media in the return chamber. We should also mention that there is a smaller version for aquariums up to 400 liters – the standard Prizm which is even more compact – a mere 5cm wide!

AZOO Algae away resin and sponge

AZOO Algae-away resin is an amazing filter media that can absorb large amounts of toxic ammonia and nitrite, plus the less-toxic but undesirable wastes that promote algae growth: nitrate and phosphate. Its ability to absorb these compounds far exceeds that of activated carbons.

This product is available in two forms: the resin in a mesh bag for use in canister filters and algae-away sponge: filter matting impregnated with this resin for use in just about ANY filter system, including overflow filters and internal powerlifters.

AZOO flexible bubble walls

Although most modern filter systems now run under the power of a magnetic impellor, air pumps are no longer essential aquarium equipment. But that doesn’t mean they’ve become redundant. Although not strictly essential, an air pump is good to have on hand, even if it is not run continuously, to provide extra oxygenation if needed.

Air bubbles can also be used to create some stunning visual effects and really set off features in the aquarium. Traditional airstones made of compacted sand are used to disperse air from an air pump into tiny bubbles. These airstones are cheap, but have a limited lifespan, being fragile and subject to clogging.

But like other aquarium equipment, even air dispersers have come a long way! The most popular kind now is the flexible bubble wall. Made of special rubber, these are inert and very long-lasting, able to be regenerated if they do become clogged, and flexible so you can make whatever shape or pattern you desire! And best of all, they cost only fractionally more than the old-fashioned sandstone-type air dispersers.

What are the best Christmas gifts for someone who likes aquariums?

If you are reading this blog to prepare last-minute Christmas gift ideas for an aquarium hobbyist, here are some extra ideas based on your budget.

Starting from under $5 with a wide range of gifts under $50. There are plenty of handy gadgets that make great gifts for any aquarist including floating magnet cleaners, battery-powered gravel vacuum cleaners, electronic thermometers, budget-priced carbon dioxide systems, automatic fish feeders, aquarium supplements, and a huge range of ornaments and decorations.

Or, for a $15 to $50 budget range, think starter kits from $19.95 and a great value package with Azoo’s razzle-dazzle aquarium plus everything you need to get started for just $39.95.

For those considering larger gifts, note custom aquariums and all aquarium furniture shopping usually cannot be done until too last minute. You usually still have a range of standard-sized aquariums to choose from but they still sell fast around holiday time!

How To Get Rid Of Fungus In Turtles? Symptoms And Treatments For Common Infection FAQ-5 (2022)


Fungus is the most common disease of turtles and requires fairly specialized treatment. Treatment is not particularly difficult but does require patience and persistence. If fungus is detected early and the turtle is otherwise healthy, treatment is normally highly effective. Treatment becomes more difficult and less likely to succeed where the infection has entered the bloodstream, or where the turtle is ill or weakened due to other causes (poor diet, sub-optimal temperatures, etc).

Here are some products that may help

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Best Aquarium Anti-bacterial Extract

Good product, needs cautious use – This kills nothing if used properly and providing the right environment for the fish. This means fish get sick because of water quality, improper housing or introducing an infected item into the tank. So one of those are your first problem to correct. Get your oxygen pump going strong before using it.

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Best Extract For Cleaning Turtle Water

Truly amazing –  it SUBSTANTIALLY minimizes our little red eared sliders turtle waste. We added it to the water 2 days after we had cleaned the tank and there was already some turtle waste down at the bottom. It took a few days for that initial waste to dissipate….. but it did. It’s been 3 or 4 weeks and the water is still clear.

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Best Odor Clearing Device

Works great – Purchased for my aquatic turtle aquarium. I put four in after cleaning it a few days ago and so far so good. The water seems to be staying clear and there is no odor.

Fungus is the number one killer of baby turtles. If you suspect your turtle has fungus, see our treatment guide here.

==> Continue your reading for more fish tank blogs.

External fungal infections

Symptoms: These appear as solid white lumps, firstly around the toes and eyes then progressing to other areas on the legs and neck. The fungus may also begin at any area where skin or shell damage has occurred.

Treatment: Very mild cases may sometimes be treated simply by painting the affected area with a good quality aquarium medication and providing good water quality. It is highly recommended that you also add a little salt (5 to 10 grams per liter) and medication to the water.

Most anti-fungal and anti-bacterial aquarium medications contain suitable ingredients for treating fungus and are safe for turtles whether painted on the skin or added to the water.

If your turtle is more severely affected by external fungus, or if you are unsure how severe the infection is, the best treatment for external fungus is a combination treatment. This consists of painting the affected area and providing the turtle with a medicated salt bath, and this treatment may also be effective for turtles with internal infections.

Using this treatment for external fungus will ensure that any unnoticed sites of infection are treated and that the infection is prevented from spreading to the bloodstream.

Internal infections

Symptoms: The turtle may be pink in color under the legs and around the shell, or the underside of the shell may be pink. The turtle will generally be listless and not eating. External fungal infections may also be present.

Treatment: Internal fungal infections can be hard to treat successfully. We recommend giving the turtle a medicated salt bath as detailed below and painting any sites of external infection with an aquarium anti-fungal medication.

Medicated salt bath for turtles

The medicated bath can be given in the aquarium or in a separate container. Which is best will depend on the individual situation. If the aquarium is large or if you have more than one turtle, it is probably best to treat the affected animal separately.

If however, the aquarium is quite small, or if the turtle is too large to treat in another container, treatment can be carried out in the aquarium. Even if treated in a separate container it is recommended that you gravel clean and water changes the aquarium and treat it with some salt (3 to 5 grams per liter) and a half-dose of medication.

This will ensure that any other turtles you have do not succumb to fungal infections, and provides the best conditions for the treated turtle to be returned to in order to avoid re-infection.


When a turtle has fungus, especially if it is young, it may be very weak. It is, therefore, best to prepare a shallow bath, with the water being just deep enough to cover the shell. In this way, the turtle does not need to swim up for air. However, you want the turtle to stay mostly submerged whilst treating it, so this is the one time where you should not provide it with somewhere to get out of the water.

A temperature of between 24°C and 26°C is best while treating your turtle, but most important is that it not be too cold (ie below 20°C). Place the container or aquarium in a warm spot or provide aquarium heating if necessary. Since you do not need to feed the turtle at this stage (as it is unlikely to eat anyway), and since you will need to change some of the water regularly anyway, filtration is not usually necessary.

In the bath, you should use 10 grams of sea or aquarium salt per liter, and the full recommended dose of an aquarium anti-fungal medication. Paint the affected areas of the turtle’s skin with the medication as well. At least half of the water in the bath should be exchanged daily – remember to add more salt and medication when you replace some of the water (but only enough to treat the amount of new water).

Aside from changing the water, the turtle should be disturbed as little as possible. The length of treatment will depend on the severity of the fungus, 3 to 5 days is usually sufficient for treating external fungus, internal infections may need to be treated for a week or more.

After a few days, the turtle should seem more lively, and you can try to feed it a little food (try a few frozen worms or some dried shrimp). Examine the turtle for any signs of fungus. If it seems better you can return it to the aquarium, or refill the aquarium if this was used for treatment. Be sure to maintain good water quality with a little salt and medication to ensure treatment is complete.

If the turtle seems clear of external fungus but is still listless, weak, or unwilling to eat, keep it in shallow medicated water. Tempt it with dried shrimp or frozen bloodworms until it begins to eat. If the turtle is very weak it may take several days, even weeks, to fully recover.

Once the turtle is eating and free of other symptoms you can return it to the aquarium, or slowly increase the water level it is in if it is being treated in the aquarium. However, while the turtle is recovering, be sure to provide it with very good water quality (add some salt and medication to be sure), warmth, and plenty of resting places.

4 Best Recommended Filtration Products 2022 To Enhance The Water Quality In Your Saltwater Aquariums


The water quality in a saltwater aquarium is critical. This is because their bodies are more dilute than the seawater they swim in. To prevent dehydration they need to continuously intake seawater and thus they are more vulnerable to harmful elements. It is very important to get a good grasp on the fine details on how to maintain a saltwater aquarium that is properly filtered.

There are two types of filtration available to the saltwater aquarists: mechanical and biological.

The two most common types of mechanical filtration in marine aquariums are power filters and protein skimmers. Both add to the total water circulation of the tank. Filters intake aquarium water and screen out detritus and suspended wastes. Often there is activated carbon as well. The filter’s cartridge must be regularly cleaned otherwise the decaying wastes will start polluting the water. Protein skimmers remove dissolved wastes. They are a fairly recent invention in the hobby and are very effective.

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Best mechanical Filtration For Saltwater

Clean tanks Works great!!! – It was suddenly crystal clear! you could see the fish, the plants, and a few things that needed attention . These pads have cut down on my aquarium care and made it effortless to keep my tanks clean and fish happy.

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Best Biological Filtration Media for Bacteria Growth and Phosphate Reduction

Very well packaged and well priced . – You can feel the weight difference between this and marinepur instantly and same goes for the porosity . Highest porosity and largest useable surface area, per unit weight or volume, of all filtration media available anywhere

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Best Long Large Aquarium Ceramic Bio Media Blocks Filter Fish Tank

Fantastic filter material – Filtration is all about surface area – this stuff has a huge surface area and is highly porous – it weighs next to nothing and is shaped to make it easy to pack into a bio filter. Its cheap for the amount of filtration. water flows through it easily. its inert

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Best Ceramic Bio Filter Media Brick for Salt Fresh Water Aquarium

Large biological filter media – For the amount of filter media that you get here the value is very good. This would work well in a sump or large canister filter. The only thing to not is when rubbed together some small particles break off making a sand like material. Make sure you wash well and you should be good to go.

Biological filtration utilizes the nitrogen cycle to get rid of the ammonia that is excreted by fish. Beneficial microbes turn ammonia into nitrite and then into nitrate, which is relatively harmless. These bacteria colonies need surface area to grow in. The old type of biological filtration that is considered outdated today is the underground filter. Over time detritus accumulates and it needs to be cleaned constantly or it will lose effectiveness. The new favored system is “live rockâ€. Live rock is a rock that is harvested from the ocean that has living organisms. Although more expensive, it is more powerful and much more natural. It will also have small organisms and algae that fish will be able to feed on.

A properly filtered aquarium needs to contain both types of filtration. A marine aquarium represents both a significant monetary and time investment. Be sure to become knowledgeable about the various options before attempting to raise a marine community.

If you would like to learn much more about the biological filtration properties of live rock or how effective carbon in an aquarium is visit http://www.fishtankpedia.com where we provide expert advice on that and much more!

Anemone In A Fish-Only Saltwater Aquarium? 9 Steps To Change Water Of Fish Tank (2022)


I have heard it is left to slightly more experienced aquarists to have coral in their saltwater aquariums, but I was interested in starting a saltwater aquarium with anemones. Is it easier/ just as difficult to take care of anemones in a saltwater tank with some fish in it? (the usual clown or two and some damsels) Do you need the same equipment as a tank with coral?

Here are some products that may help maintaining a healthy salt water tank.

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Best Coral Aquarium Tank

Good tank for beginners – The tank is phenomenal, plenty of space I chamber 1 for my heater and coralife nano skimmer which works great. LED lights are great and the timers are easy to use.

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Best Marine Salt For Aquarium Tanks

Perfect for marine organisms -Great deal for the price! Got it for my sisters hermit crabs for their saltwater pool. Btw here are some ratios to save you some math if you do have pet Crabs or need to make small amounts of seawater for something.

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Best Water Concentration Testing Strips

Easy to read – This is definitely the way to go and I can test whenever I like without worrying about wasting money. They are really accurate, but you have to make sure that you do not move the stick because they bleed onto the other testing squares pretty easily.

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Do You Need A Salt Water Heater?

Good Heater – The built-in display on the actual heater is very useful. It also has a controller that I attached to the side of the tank to make adjustments as needed.

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Best Aquarium Filter

Perfect filter and customisation-friendly – TI love this unit! I was able to do a minimal customization to allow this unit to hang on the side of my 55 gallon tank! It’s small yet large enough to keep the tank clean. Perfect for filter modifications! 

Keeping your water clean and fresh is a great way to ensure that your saltwater fish stay healthy and colorful. But it must be done correctly or else it can actually stress the fish out and possibly cause disease to set in. The article below will go over how to change water in a saltwater aquarium the right way.

Have a container that will only hold saltwater.

This will eliminate the possibility of using a container that had potentially toxic chemicals in it that could kill or sicken your fish.

Mix your saltwater up in the container.

Mix with a small aquarium powerhead for 24 hours.

Letting it mix for at least 24 hours will ensure that all the chemicals dissolve and the properties of the water equalize. It will also allow any ammonia that can occur when mixing new salt to dissipate.

Have a heater in the water

Make sure you set a heater within two degrees of your main tank.

Mix the replacement water.

It will make exactly the same salinity as your display tank.

Shut off all equipment including the heater.

If not, an unsubmerged heater may turn on and get hot. When the colder aquarium water touches it, it could shatter!

Siphon the old tank water out.

By doing so, you are making sure to vacuum the gravel bed to remove settled debris or if you have live rock try and remove any settled debris from it. A good way to do this is to take a small powerhead and blow the rock off just before you drain the water from your aquarium.

Pour the new water in slowly.

We emphasize “slowly” to make sure to not disturb the tank’s decorations or gravel too much.

Change filter pads or material for a fresh start.

Try and change at least 25% of your tank’s water every month and split it up into two or three smaller changes rather than one large one. This will lessen the stress on your saltwater fish.

For more Saltwater Aquarium Tips that will help you have a trouble-free tank check out or marine aquarium guide? It will show you how to set up and care for your tank the right way. Learn more at http://www.dseventures.com

These Saltwater Aquarium Tips Can Prove Incredibly Helpful To You 2022


There’s a lot involved in setting up your saltwater aquarium. Don’t just think it’s going to be a walk in the park. Yes, it’s easy to set up, but you need to pay attention to the details. You must make sure that you understand the basic details of filling the right quantity of water into your aquarium. The right quantity of water will work with the right amount of salt. This will create a harmonious environment for the fish in your aquarium.

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Best Built In Coral Reef Aquarium Tank for Salt Water

Amazing tank for both beginners and experts – The glass is nice and thick. The pump is very quiet. The LEDs are beautiful. I tried to program the lights without the instructions and got confused. The filtration area in the back of the aquarium has plenty of space for your hand to fit down in there and modify the filtration system.

You may not get a beautiful aquarium if you fail to patronize the professionals. The professionals will make sure that the reef will give you beauty to behold. When done well, you can seat in your home and relax at the sight of your lovely reef aquarium. If you are thinking of buying a reef system aquarium, listen to this – You cannot choose the reef system aquarium if you don’t have enough experience tending to aquariums. You need the experience to maintain the best water conditions and enough good lighting in your aquarium. You will also need to know the types of water supplements that you can use.

The Right Type of Pump

It’s important to know this when putting up your saltwater aquarium – you must make sure that you have the right type of pump fixed into your tank. You must therefore equip yourself with the right information about using the right pump in your aquarium. The wrong pump will not allow for the free flow of air in the aquarium.

I don’t know if it happens to you, but it happens to me lots of times, particularly when I am reading articles. I might read to the middle and not get the real meat of the writing until I have read to the end. This might be the case with this and other articles. So, keep reading to learn more about “Salt Water Aquarium†or “Freshwater Aquarium Versus Salt Waterâ€, “Live Salt Water Fish†or even “Salt Water Aquariaâ€.

Type of Water to Be Used

You will need to consider the type of water you want to use for your aquarium. You can either use the tap water for your aquarium which is free in most cases or you choose expensive water such as the distilled water. The major difference between free and distilled water is that you get the guarantee of safety and cleanliness from distilled water.

Lighting For Aquarium

You will have an easy time providing lightings for your freshwater aquariums. This is because the lighting process is very simple and common. You can use an ordinary fluorescent light bulb for your freshwater aquarium. But the plants in your freshwater aquarium will determine the strength of your fluorescent bulb.

Saltwater Packages

When putting together your saltwater aquarium, the saltwater packages are very easy to use. This is because you can get them in various shapes and sizes. You will only need to make sure that your water, salt, filtration, and livestock are all ready for your aquarium. There are other types of packages too… such as the one that comes with reverse osmosis.

Coral Reefs in the Aquarium

Are you contemplating purchasing the reef-ready aquarium instead of setting up your own from the scratch? The reef-ready aquarium is made by professionals. They will have the expertise to build the right aquarium. But if you do have such expertise, you can set one up for yourself. But remember that it does take some skill and know-how. For the perfect aquarium, you need the coral as part of your decoration. You can also add rocks to it. You can use both of these décors to add lots of beauty to your aquarium… most especially if you have a saltwater aquarium.

The little you have read so far about “Salt Water Aquarium†and “Fresh Water Aquarium Conditioning Saltâ€, “Best Saltwater Fish†or “Fish Rare Saltwaterâ€, from the 1st part of this article should bring some “Now I Know†moments for you, correct? If it hasn’t this far, keep reading. The rest of this article should.

Mechanical, Chemical and Biological Filtration

You need to make preparations for the three basic filtrations available for aquariums when you set up your aquarium. This is because filtration is an important part of setting up an aquarium. So consider the mechanical, chemical, and biological filtration. You cannot treat the saltwater fishes the same way you will treat the freshwater fishes. This is because the sea is a very large place and the conditions in the sea do not change too often. So it will be very difficult for saltwater fishes to adjust to any form of chemical imbalance in the sea. This is because chemical disturbances in the sea are very negligible.

Aquarium Decorations

Depending on what you want if you are particular about the underworld of your aquarium then you may consider using gravel and rocks. You need to have proper lighting and make sure you have the right kits that will help you to test the water on a regular basis. Do not forget the pump; the breathing of your fish depends on having a good pump.

You can add live rocks and coral to your aquarium. And your fish will definitely love it and live in harmony in this environment. This will form the basis of your tank. This will make your fish to live a natural kind of life in the aquarium.

If you are an expert in the aquarium it is very easy for you to build your own reef-ready aquarium. But if you are just a beginner, you can avoid stress by just buying your ready-made from your aquarium manufacturer. This will help you to keep away from all the problems associated with building your own. Are you looking for a way to add beauty to your freshwater aquarium? If yes, then you have many ways to do this. There are different types of tanks that you can use. And you can add as many accessories to it as you can lay your hands on.

It is my utmost desire that the first half of this writing and the remaining part helps you with all the educative information you need about “Salt Water Aquarium or “Guppies Salt Water Aquariumâ€, “Salt Water Rocks†or even “90 Gallon Fish Tankâ€,â€.

Everything Must Be Saltwater-proof

When setting up your saltwater aquarium, it’s important for you to be aware that everything which goes inside the aquarium must be saltwater-proof. This will help you to avoid poisoning the fish inside the aquarium. Anything that is not saltwater proof will lead to poisoning… the decorations inclusive. A first-time aquarium hobbyist will need to avoid going for the biggest saltwater aquarium. You will need to start small. You may consider using the ten gallons tank for your aquarium. You can gradually increase this by the time you are gaining more experience needed for your aquarium.

You will have no problems changing the light in your aquarium. This is because there are various lighting available for the aquariums. You need to take a lot of care in using the right type of lightings for your aquarium. This is because they have different lighting procedures.

Know The Gravity Of Salts

Don’t just add the salt you bought from your pet and aquarium store to water for use in your aquarium. You will need to ascertain that you are dealing with the right gravity. Get the necessary information about the right level of gravity for your aquarium. When you go about setting up your saltwater aquarium, do not buy your reef if it does not come with a complete kit. The complete kit will have chemical preparations and water temperature controller. This kit will help you to check the pH and salt salinity in the aquarium.

If you just develop the aquarium hobby then changing your freshwater to saltwater will require a very large aquarium. This will give you room to learn all the curves associated with the aquarium. You know when fishes in the aquarium are overcrowded or when they are overfed.

You are the one who knows what you want to achieve with your saltwater aquarium. That should guide you in making the choice of fish you want to put in your saltwater aquarium. How colorful you want your aquarium to look will also guide you in picking the right fish.

Now that this writing has covered some truly remarkable, as well as vital tips regarding “Salt Water Aquarium†and “High Ph In Salt Water Aquariumâ€, “Salt Water Tropical Fish Pictures†or “Screen Savers Fish Tankâ€, let’s see if the remaining part of this writing will touch a bit on other related aspects.

Make Sure Fishes Can Cohabit Together

You need to make sure that the fishes you are putting in your tank can cohabit together. It will be wrong for you to put fishes that can swallow one another together. You need to make sure that you have been able to combine the right fishes together. You will need to carry out your own research so that you can get the list of compatible fishes.

You will have the opportunity of turning your tank into an ocean if you choose to use the large tank. You will be able to build a saltwater aquarium that can be turned into an environment not different from the ocean. You will have to combine the entire element necessary in the ocean together in your large tank aquarium.

Know Your Aquarium Capacity

For you to have the right aquarium you need to know that there is a specific measurement in the way you compose your aquarium. You need to know the right sizes and shapes. You can do this by reading important literature on the subject or by making use the relevant guides to help you build your aquarium. You may face some challenges and difficulty when you set out to get your aquarium. This does not mean that you have to give it all up. You will only need to get more exposed to the project by getting the needed information.

You need to know that the maintenance of both the freshwater aquariums and the saltwater aquariums is very different. You will need to be very careful and have the required knowledge when you handle the saltwater aquarium. This is because it is more difficult to maintain the saltwater aquarium.

Do you have the dilemma of identifying what the right level of salt is for your aquarium? If yes, listen up – You will know the right level of salt for your aquarium by using the hydrometer. This will help you to maintain the balance between the salt and water in your saltwater aquarium. Have it in mind that the water level in your aquarium may go down but the salt level is always constant.

If the first part of this article didn’t thrill you as much as you thought it would keep reading. Sometimes the most pertinent tips aren’t revealed until one digs deeper into an article.

What makes the freshwater aquarium different from the saltwater aquarium? The difference is that one has salt while the other does not have. Therefore the fishes in the saltwater depend on the saltwater to survive and stay healthy.

If you are wondering what type of driftwood to use for your aquarium, consider that the type of driftwood you use will depend on the size of your aquarium. You will also need to consider if you want to use it for a saltwater aquarium or freshwater aquarium. The fishes you have in your aquarium also have a role to play in the type of driftwood you choose to use in your aquarium.

You may not have money to spare for your saltwater aquarium. And since you are trying to cut costs you can simply drive to the ocean and get the water that you need. This is the simplest method that you can use to prepare your saltwater aquarium. But what if you can’t get to the ocean? You will have to buy from your pet and aquarium stores.

When you go about setting up your saltwater aquarium, do not buy your reef if it does not come with a complete kit. The complete kit will have chemical preparations and a water temperature controller. This kit will help you to check the pH and salt salinity in the aquarium. The number of fishes and other mammals you place in the saltwater aquariums is different from the ones you can put inside the freshwater aquariums. This is because saltwater aquariums can contain many mammals and fishes while freshwater aquariums cannot. The types of mammals the saltwater aquariums can contain have given it the popularity and appeal it has today.

When you use the warm water aquarium you will need to get the tropical fishes. The tropical fishes are very expensive. As a beginner, you may not be able to maintain such an aquarium because you may end up losing all the fish in your aquarium.

How many times have you read articles that are this well-researched, especially articles concerning “Salt Water Aquarium or “Salt Water Aquarium Plantsâ€, “Saltwater For Aquariums†or even “Fish Male Bettaâ€,? Keep on reading to find out just how well-researched this powerful piece of writing is.

A first-time aquarium hobbyist will need to avoid going for the biggest saltwater aquarium. You will need to start small. You may consider using the ten gallons tank for your aquarium. You can gradually increase this by the time you are gaining more experience needed for your aquarium.

You will need to make up your mind on the type of fish that you want in your aquarium. This will be based on whether you want a freshwater aquarium or you want a saltwater aquarium. The best thing that is good for a novice is the small tank because you will be able to maintain it. You will need the right heater for the right temperature and the right filter to remove pollution and help maintain the cleanliness of the aquarium. These are just some of the basic things you need to know when setting up your home aquarium.

You may not have money to spare for your saltwater aquarium. And since you are trying to cut cost you can simply drive to the ocean and get the water that you need. This is the simplest method that you can use to prepare your saltwater aquarium. But what if you can’t get to the ocean? You will have to buy from your pet and aquarium stores.

When you go about setting up your saltwater aquarium, do not buy your reef if it does not come with a complete kit. The complete kit will have chemical preparations and water temperature, controller. This kit will help you to check the pH and salt salinity in the aquarium. The number of fishes and other mammals you place in the saltwater aquariums is different from the ones you can put inside the freshwater aquariums. This is because saltwater aquariums can contain many mammals and fishes while freshwater aquariums cannot. The types of mammals the saltwater aquariums can contain have given it the popularity and appeal it has today.

When you use the warm water aquarium you will need to get the tropical fishes. The tropical fishes are very expensive. As a beginner you may not be able to maintain such aquarium because you may end up losing all the fish in your aquarium.

How many times have you read articles that are this well-researched, especially articles concerning “Salt Water Aquarium or “Salt Water Aquarium Plantsâ€, “Saltwater For Aquariums†or even “Fish Male Bettaâ€,? Keep on reading to find out just how well-researched this powerful piece of writing is.

A first-time aquarium hobbyist will need to avoid going for the biggest saltwater aquarium. You will need to start small. You may consider using the ten gallons tank for your aquarium. You can gradually increase this by the time you are gaining more experience needed for your aquarium.

You will need to make up your mind on the type of fish that you want in your aquarium. This will be based on whether you want a freshwater aquarium or you want a saltwater aquarium. The best thing that is good for a novice is the small tank because you will be able to maintain it. You will need the right heater for the right temperature and the right filter to remove pollution and help maintain the cleanliness of the aquarium. These are just some of the basic things you need to know when setting up your home aquarium.

If you have some money to spare you can prepare your saltwater aquarium by just getting the bottled saltwater from your pet and aquarium stores. You will be purchasing water that was collected from the ocean and properly packaged for your use. You will be given guarantees of deriving a lot of benefit from the water you bought. The importance of light in your aquarium cannot be ignored. You will need some lights in the aquarium so that you will not cluster your tank. All these will contribute to the survival of your fish. Without ensuring the survival of your fish, what’s the use of a salt water aquarium, right?

You have some good benefits to enjoy from having an aquarium, whether a freshwater aquarium or a saltwater aquarium. You will have the aesthetic benefit of it when you see your fish floating around in the water. You will also get some form of education from the experience. This is when you learn how these equipment function together.

Take a break as you get to the middle of this piece of writing. Is what you have read so far worthwhile concerning “Salt Water Aquarium†or “Mixing Salt Water For Aquariumâ€, “Lighting For Saltwater Aquarium†or even “Saltwater Aquarium Basicsâ€,? If yes, then it’s obvious the remainder of this writing will be educative as well.

You will have a good time setting up your saltwater aquarium if you know how to mix the salt. Mixing the right quantity will help you to have the right condition in your aquarium. Learn how to mix the right level of salt in your saltwater aquarium. Do you know the difference between freshwater fish and saltwater fish? The freshwater fish will find it easy to maintain a peaceful environment. The saltwater fish on the other hand will need to work hard to maintain its environment. The freshwater fish can easily adjust to changes in the environment but the saltwater fish may have difficulties with this.

You will need to consider how adequate air flows through your aquarium. This will contribute to the healthy nature of your fish and plants. The proper filtration plants will also contribute to this if you are able to adequately remove pollution from your water. The success of your aquarium depends on how well you are willing to take care of the place.

Hanging Filtration System


A hanging filtration system is probably the easiest one for starting your aquarium. All this system does is hang on the back of your tank and cycle your water. This is probably the least complex way to go if you want to start your aquarium and do more research to upgrade later. It is also the least expensive filter as well. The way these filter works is the water is sucked up into your filter by the intake tube and cycles through your filter then is reintroduced to your tank by some sort of waterfall or a return tube to create a small current.

This filtration system requires little maintenance. The hang-on filter consists of a housing body. The housing body will hold all of the filter inserts and will be where the water cycles through. It will have an intake tube. That will be inserted into the water in your aquarium and suck water into your filter housing. You will also have filter media cartridges. It will have the return spout. This is how the clean cycled water from your filter will return to your aquarium. Sometimes the motor of the filter can be detached to be cleaned. But also times it is not able to be detached. Your filter cartridge will be your mechanical, chemical, and biological filtration.

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Best Penn-Plax Cascade Hang-on Aquarium Filter with Quad Filtration System

Good Filter-Incredible Value – This filter is quiet and well-made. It took a minute or less to assemble, and everything fit well, had a quality feel, and fit perfectly together. The filter media last extremely well, much longer than the carbon contained permanently within the replaceable cartridge. 

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Best Internal Green Water Killer Filter Aquarium Tank U-V Pump

Works well. – Been fighting green water issues for a while due to proximity to window. After an aggressive 50% water change, installed the UV filter. Pro is…it’s made your tank water clear in a day, and has kept it clear (10 gallon tank w/two filter wool/charcoal corner filters). Love that part of this product. Next, needed improvements (why it’s only 2 stars), no filter media at intakes. It has been running for a few weeks with no problems. It is very quiet and seems to put out some pretty good flow. Overall it is very effective and works as a UV filter. would purchase again.

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Best Aquarium Hang-On Back Power Filter System

Really happy with this filter – This is a great filter, it’s quiet and does a great job cleaning your tank. skimmer handles the surface oil issue your tank has had. Really like the generic baskets for carbon and bio-material since they don’t try to lock you into proprietary stuff. Runs pretty smoothly and quiet. The flow control knobs are also nice

Hang-on filters need minimal maintenance. You will want to replace your filter media cartridges about once every three to four weeks. This will ensure that your filter is continuously flowing with clean water and keeping all of your levels where they need to be. After having your filter for a longer period of time you may want to do a deep clean of it. Over time algae will build up in your filter and it could slow your flow or even block it. If your tank has a bio-wheel It should never be cleaned or become dry because that can cause the good bacteria on it to die.

Setting up your hang-on back filter is simple. All you would need to do to set up your filter would be to assemble your intake tube and the media cartridge. after that, it should tell you on the box whether you would need to run it dry or automatically put your aquarium water into it and run the filter. Once you have your filter set up and running you should let it cycle for one to two weeks before adding fish. After it is cycling and running well you are ready to add some fish! I hope this helps new hobbyists out to know a little more about hang-on back filters!

I hope this helped you learn a little bit about probably the easiest filter there is for any aquarium. If you have any questions or concerns please do not hesitate to leave a comment. I would love to try and help you out as much as I can.

Rinse Your Phosphate Remover! Best 3 Recommendations For You


I recently changed the carbon media in my saltwater aquarium and thought I would put a bag of phosphate remover in there also. However, in my haste, I did not rinse the phosphate removal media and put it straight into my saltwater aquarium filter. There was a reaction and the bag holding the phosphate remover bubbled intensely. I have learned that this reaction is normal and is due to the phosphate removal media heating up. The correct process is to rinse the media thoroughly under fresh water prior to placing it in the saltwater aquarium. This removes the toxic dust from the media and allows for the reaction to occur.

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Best Phosphate Remover for Freshwater and Saltwater Aquariums

FIGHTS ALGAE – Reduces and prevents algae by removing their phosphate food source . Product works good!!! Works great for your aquariums looks awesome. Works in saltwater and freshwater aquariums, reef tanks, ponds and more

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Best Kolar Labs GFO HC – High Capacity Bayoxide E33HC Phosphate Remover

Reduces phosphates – This product seems to work at least as as well as the many different kinds of phosphate removers. Excellent product. Low dust content, great for lowering phosphates. Been using over a year now.

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Best Seachem PhosNet Phosphate Silicate Remover Aquarium Filter Media

Works really well – Great product does remove your phosphate’s but just remember it’s not the cure .. find the issue the. Use this to bring it down and maintain your tank husbandry. .The water is crystal clear thanks to a UVC filter. Nitrite and nitrate levels were hardly detectable with the JBL tests, but silicate and phosphate were significantly increased.

Now, I came home later that day and was in shock to see the majority of my corals retracted and unhappy. It had appeared that my water had been contaminated by the non rinsing of my phosphate removal media. I proceeded to change around 100L of my 250L in my saltwater aquarium over the next few days. I took a sample of water to my LFS and they advised I had a spike in PH because of the reaction and that it was back on track.

In terms of damage, my saltwater aquarium took a small hit. My already struggling hammer coral was on its last legs after this and my new leather coral in my previous post, unfortunately, slightly bleached and has lost that bright green color to its polyps. Hopefully, they come back! All my fish were fine.

I hope this saves you from making the same mistake!

Flipper Algae Scraper


One of the most tedious parts of weekly saltwater aquarium maintenance would have to be the regular cleaning of tough algae growth from the glass or surface of the aquarium wall. This type of algae doesn’t just wipe off with a standard magnetic algae cleaner and usually requires the use of a metal blade and a fair bit of elbow grease.

Buy Flipper Here!

Currently, I have a broken leg so cleaning my saltwater aquarium is a relatively difficult task. Standing over the aquarium scraping the glass for an extended period of time is out of the question. So the other day I was at my local fish store and found a tool called the “flipper†displayed behind the counter. It’s a standard magnetic algae scrubber on one side and then you flip and rotate the pieces and it’s a scraper on the other. The scraper uses a metal blade and is entirely magnetic which means that you don’t need to have your hand in the aquarium for extended periods. The flipper tool also comes with a tough plastic blade if you don’t have a glass saltwater aquarium. The scraper part also floats, so if for some reason the parts separate, you won’t have to go fishing for it.

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Best Flipper Algae Scraper For Glass Aquariums

Great at removing algae – Works great as an algae remover. The stainless blade is more of a thin metal piece vice a razor blade. It is not sharp, just at an angle that assists in removing the tough stuff. Be careful when using blade below gravel as it can pick up the gravel and on the back stroke scratch the glass.  It takes practice to flip it like they tell you to. Must remove magnet away from glass turn then put back to glass before it falls to the bottom. Has slim design to get in tight places, which won’t allow them to be able to make it boyant.

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Best Algae Scraper Replacement Blades for Fish Tank Cleaning Kits

Perfect replacement for Flipper cleaner – As a saltwater aquarium hobbyist, the Flipper magnet cleaner was probably one of the best purchase. These blades are perfect replacements for the original blade that comes with the Flipper cleaner. These fit the large flipper perfectly and are a lot cheaper than having to buy a new one. 

I have found after using the flipper that I can clean the aquarium much quicker and do not even have to put my arm in the aquarium. This means I don’t disturb the livestock and put extended stress on my broken leg! The flipper also gets into areas of the aquarium that might be unreachable. My aquarium has live rock very close to the glass on each side and I find my arm doesn’t allow me to reach these areas, I do not have this problem with the flipper. I have no association with this product, I am just an aquarist who is always looking at perfecting the art of saltwater aquarium maintenance.

Algae is a common problem that all saltwater fish tank keepers will have to deal with sooner or later. While most algae problems can be traced back to poor tank care and improper setups there are algae eating aquarium fish that can help you come out a winner in your battle against saltwater aquarium algae.

Common Types Of Marine Aquarium Algae And Animals that Eat Them

  • Diatom Algae– This brown film algae is a common saltwater aquarium algae that usually covers the inside glass and gravel of the saltwater fish tank. This rarely gets out of control and what little does grow can easily be taken care of with snails. The astrea and nerite snails will do a great job of eating any diatoms is your tank.
  • Hair Algae- Hair is probably the most common and most frustrating saltwater aquarium algae to deal with. Fortunately, it is also a favorite food of many algae-eating aquarium fish. Some of the common fish that are used to eat hair algae are the yellow tang and the lawnmower blenny. The yellow tang does a great job in saltwater fish tanks that are 55 gallons and larger. For smaller systems use the lawnmower blenny. Along with these fish, you can employ urchins to quickly devour the algae from the rocks and decorations.
  • Bubble Algae- Bubble algae is very common in saltwater tanks and reef aquariums that use live rock. The most common and effective predator for this marine algae is the mithrax crab, or the emerald crab as it is more commonly known. This docile crab will eat the bubble about 50% of the time and has a docile nature and poses no real threat to other tank mates like some crabs often do. There is no known saltwater fish that eats bubbles.

Breeding Sensitive Cichlid: All About Cyprichromis Leptosoma


Cyprichromis leptosoma

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Cyprichromis leptosoma Mpimbwe “Black Bee” male pictured.

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Cyprichromis leptosoma Mpimbwe “Black Bee” photos

  • Common Name:
  • Locations Collected From: Has a fairly wide distribution with each location having a different coloration.
  • Approximate Size: 4 inches
  • Food: Not really picky.  They will eat flake, pellet, frozen and live foods.
  • Water Conditions: Needs a pH between 7.8 – to at least 8.6 and a temperature between 75 – 78 degrees.  These fish tend to be ammonia sensitive with even small amounts being lethal.  High temperatures (82 degrees and higher) can also be deadly for these fish.
  • Breeding Behavior: Mouthbrooder.  Multiple males can be kept in the same tank with multiple females for each male.  The dominate male will chase the females and subdominant males away from his area around spawning time.   Brooding females will frequently not carry their eggs when frightened.  This species has also been known to jump out of the tank when frightened.
  • Tankmates: Should do well with more peaceful tankmates like Synodontis catfish and Benthochromis tricoti.  Frontosa and Tropheus are not recommended.

Aquarium Plants For Your Fish Tank Decor: Brief Info About Ludwigia Glanduosa


Ludwigia glanduosa

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  • Scientific Name: Ludwigia glanduosa
  • Common Name:
  • Approximate Size: 10 – 15  inches in height.
  • pH Range: 5 – 9+
  • Temperature Range: 60 – 84
  • Lighting: Does well in moderate or bright light
  • How to keep: Needs to be planted in the substrate. 
  • How to propagate: Grows well from cuttings.
  • Prohibited in the US: No

Looking For A Friendly Tankmate? Learn More About Astatotilapia Nubila


Astatotilapia nubila  

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  • Common name: Also called nubilus
  • Location and Lake collected from: The populations around Anchor Island are the most common location found in the hobby. This species has a wide distribution throughout the area.
  • Approximate size: 3.5 – 4 inches
  • Food: Mine have eaten flake, brine shrimp, daphnia, spirulina, mosquito larvae, pellet and took care of a small snail problem in their tank.
  • pH: 7.5 – 8.3
  • Temperature: 75 – 82 degrees F.
  • Breeding behavior: Mouthbrooder. Males start to develop adult coloration when they reach a size of about 1.5 inches. Males claim a territory and aggressively defend it. They also chase the females so multiple females for each male is recommended. Based on my experience, only one male should be kept per tank. Females should have rocks to hide in. Females brood for 15 – 21 days with a brood size between 40 – 50 fry for an adult female. 
  • Care of the Fry: The fry can eat crushed flake food and baby brine shrimp. They do well with several small feedings a day. Hap. nubila fry is not picky about their water conditions. Most spawns can be kept in a 20-gallon tank up to an inch in size. The fry is sexually mature at about 13 weeks post-release and has also been known to spawn at a small size of 1.5 inches and produce 5 – 10 fry. 
  • Tankmates: I have kept mine in with Labidochromis caeruleus, Labidochromis sp. Perlmutt, Labidochromis sp. Mbamba, Psuedotropheus aurora, Psuedotropheus greshakei, Psuedotropheus zebra “Chilumba”, Iodotropheus sprengerae “Rusty”, Julidochromis dickfeldi, Julidochromis marlieri, Neolamprologus tretocephalus, Neolamprologus sexfasciatus, and Altolamprologus calvus without problems.
  • Tank size: I kept 1 male and 9 females in a 40 gallon cube (24x24x18) tank.